Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Chapter 17

Human Development

Chapter 17 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood
prejudice or discrimination against a person (most commonly an older person) based on age ageism
gradual, and have double process of bodily deterioration throughout the life span primary aging
aging processes that result from disease and bodily abuse and misuse and are often preventable secondary aging
measure of a person's ability to function effectively in his or her physical and social environment in comparison with others of the same chronological age functional age
study of the aged and the process of aging gerontology
branch of medicine concerned with the processes of aging and medical conditions associated with old age geriatrics
What are causes for the aging population? People are living longer due to economic growth, better nutrition, healthier lifestyle, improved control of infectious disease, safer water, advances in science, technology and medicine
What is the impact of the aging population? More people will be using the resources and not helping replenish them
What are the 2 criteria for differentiating among young old, old old and oldest old? Health, activity/independence
How is today's older population changing? Living longer, more people entering older population
age to which a person in a particular cohort is statistically likely to live (given his or her current age and health status), on the basis of average longevity of a population life expectancy
length of an individual's life longevity
the longest period that members of a species can live lifespan
the proportions of a total population or of certain age groups who die in a given year mortality rate
What are trends in life expectancy, including gender, regional and ethnic differences? People are frequently living until their early 80’s, women live longer than men, developed countries longer than undeveloped, Africa has shortest lifespan, African-Americans are more likely to die early, if can survive to late age can live longer
Period of the life span marked by declines in physical functioning usually associated with aging, begins at different ages for different people senescence
theories that explain biological aging as resulting from a genetically determined developmental timetable genetic-programming theories
What are the 2 theories of biological aging? Genetic-programming theory, variable-rate theory
theory: aging is the result of the sequential switching on and off of certain genes, time when resulting age-associated defects become evident programmed senescence theory (genetic programming theory)
theory: biological clocks act through hormones to control the pace of aging endocrine theory (genetic programming theory)
theory: program decline in the immune system functions leads to increased former ability to infectious disease and us to aging and death immunological theory (genetic programming theory)
theory: aging is an evolved trait enabling members of a species to live only long enough to reproduce evolutionary theory (genetic programming theory)
theory: cells and tissues have vital parts that wear out wear-and-tear theory (variable-rate theory)
theory: accumulated damage from oxygen radicals causes cells and eventually organs to stop functioning free-radical theory (variable-rate theory)
theory: the greater an organism's rate of metabolism, the shorter its lifespan rate-of-living theory (variable-rate theory)
theory: immune system becomes confused and attacks its own body cells autoimmune theory (variable-rate theory)
theories that explain biological aging as a result of processes of varied from person to person and are influenced by both the internal and external environment variable-rate theories or error theories
conversion of food and oxygen into energy metabolism
unstable, highly reactive atoms or molecules, formed during metabolism, which can cause internal bodily damage free radicals
tendency of aging body to mistake its own tissues for foreign invaders and to attack and destroy them autoimmunity
curves, plotted on a graph, showing percentages of a population that survive each age level survival curves
genetically controlled to limit, proposed by Hayflick, on the number of times cells can divide in members of a species Hayflick limit
What are the 2 theories of biological aging? Genetic-programming theories, variable-rate theories
What are the implications and supporting evidence of genetic-programming theories? Biological aging is the result of a genetically determined developmental timetable, genes that affect ageing, effects of mitochondria self-destructing, shrinking of telomeres
What are the implications and supporting evidence of variable-rate theories? Aging is affected by environment and involves damage due to chance errors on biological systems, free radicals, autoimmunity, studying longevity medicine
What are the findings of life extension research? Complex because no single gene is aging gene, hey flick limit and that cells can only multiply so many times, death rates increase after 70 and decrease after age 100, benefit of calorie restriction diet,
What are the limitations of life extension research in human beings? Benefit of calorie restriction diet, genetic control of biological process very complex, no single gene controls senescence
How has life expectancy changed? Has increased from being in the 20s to living an average of 70 years (in US), more people living to be more than 100 years old
What causes aging? Primary aging-natural bodily deterioration, secondary aging-result of disease, abuse, disuse, under person's control
What possibilities exist for extending the life span? Genetic mutations, calorie restrictive diets
ability of body organs and systems to put forth 4 to 10 times as much effort as usual under acute stress reserve capacity or organ reserve
What are common changes and variations in systematic functioning during late life? Paler, less elasticity, fat and muscle shrink, skin wrinkles, varicose veins on legs, hair thins and turns gray, shorter, thinning of bones, less reserve capacity
What are some age-related changes in the brain and their effects on cognitive and social functioning? Less volume and weight-does not affect cognition, less neurotransmitters and synapses-slowed response time, myelin sheathing thins out-cognitive/motor decline, grow new nerve cells-better learning and memory
cloudy or opaque areas in the lens of the eye, which cause blurred vision cataracts
condition in which the center of the retina gradually loses its ability to discern fine details; leading cause of irreversible visual impairment in older adults age-related macular degeneration
irreversible damage to the optic nerve caused by increased pressure in the eye glaucoma
What are typical changes in sensory and motor functioning and sleep needs? Vision loss, hearing loss, less strength, endurance, balance, slower reaction time, less sleep, dream less
How can changes in sensory and motor functioning affect everyday needs? May need assistance to get around or function such as glasses, hearing aid
What are some changes in sexual functioning and possibilities for sexual activity in late life? Can still have sex, may take longer, be harder to do, need longer and between
What physical changes occur during old age? Skin becomes thinner and wrinkles, less hair, less reserve capacity, brain begins to lose some function, vision trouble, hearing trouble, less strength/endurance/balance, slower reaction time, less sleep
How do physical changes vary among individuals in old age? Can vary from person to person depending on genetics and health and exercise
essential activities that support survival, such as eating, dressing, bathing and getting around the house activities of daily living
indicators of functional well-being and of the ability to live independently instrumental activities of daily living
What is the health status of older adults? Tend to be declining in health, 80% have one chronic condition, 50% have to chronic conditions, many are independent
What are common chronic conditions in late life? Heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic lower respiratory disease, diabetes, influenza/pneumonia, lung cancer, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, heart disease, emphysema
Give evidence of the influences of exercise and nutrition on health and longevity? More mobility, protect against chronic conditions, independence, mental alertness and cognitive performance
deterioration in cognitive and behavioral functioning due to physiological causes dementia
progressive, irreversible, degenerative brain disorder characterized by cognitive deterioration and loss of control of bodily functions, leading to death Alzheimer's disease
progressive, irreversible, degenerative neurological disorder, characterized by tremors, stiffness, slowed movement and unstable posture Parkinson's disease
Why might late life depression be more common than is generally realized? Physicians don't treat it enough, give depression lower priority than physical ailment
What are the 3 main causes of dementia in older adults? Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multi-infarct dementia
twisted masses of protein fibers found in the brains of persons with Alzheimer's disease (twisted masses of dead neurons) neurofibrillary tangles
waxy chunks of and soluble tissue found in brains of persons with Alzheimer's disease (nonfunctioning tissue formed by beta amyloid in the spaces between neurons) amyloid plaque
what appears to be the main culprit contributing to the development of Alzheimer's disease? Beta amyloid peptide-accumulation of an abnormal protein
hypothesized fund of energy that may enable a deteriorating brain to continue to function normally cognitive reserve
What is known about the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease? Number of people with Alzheimer's is increasing rapidly, tends to occur in late adulthood
What is known about the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease? Forgetting recent events, asking same question repeatedly, inability to do routine task, forget simple word, forget what numbers in checkbook mean, putting things in inappropriate places/cannot retrieve them, rapid/dramatic mood swings/personality changes
What is known about the causes and risk factors of Alzheimer's disease? Neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid plaque, genetic, diet, physical activity, education, cognitively stimulating activities, build cognitive reserve
What is known about the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease? Pet scan can be used to detect plaque and tangles, monitoring degenerative changes, cognitive tests
What is known about the treatment of Alzheimer's disease? No cure, early diagnosis and keep treatment can slow progress, improve quality of life, medicines such as cholinesterase inhibitors, studying immunotherapy
What are some common health problems in late adulthood? Chronic conditions, and disabilities, activity limitations, nutrition, depression, dementia, Alzheimer's,
What factors influence health in late adulthood? Physical activity, genetics, diet, nutrition, cognitive stimulation
What mental and behavioral problems do some older people experience? Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease
intelligence test for adults, which yields verbal and performance scores as well as a combined score Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Compare the classic aging pattern on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) with those of the Seattle Longitudinal Study with regard to cognitive changes in old age. WAIS-in nonverbal performance older adults did not perform as well as younger, Seattle-older adults lose perceptual speed 1st
What is evidence of the plasticity of cognitive abilities in late adulthood? Older adults that use cognitive stimulation maintain their ability such as problem solving longer than those that don't
What is the relationship between practical problem solving and age? Remains stable from young adulthood through late life and then declines
What are findings in the slowdown of neural processing and its relationship to cognitive decline? One of the 1st abilities to decline, related to health status, balance, performance of activities of daily living, older adults better at ingrained habits and knowledge
What is the relationship of intelligence to health and mortality? Lower IQ means less likely to live, higher cancer rate
initial, brief, temporary stage of sensory information sensory memory
short-term storage of information being actively processed working memory
long-term memory of specific experiences or events, link to time and place episodic memory
long-term memory of general factual knowledge, social customs and language semantic memory
long-term memory of motor skills, habits and ways of doing things, which can be recalled without conscious effort procedural memory or implicit memory
What are the 3 types of long-term memory? Episodic memory, semantic memory, procedural memory
What are the 3 steps required to process information in memory? Encoding, storage, retrieval
What are the 2 aspects of memory that tend to decline with age? Short-term memory, long-term memory
What are reasons for memory decline with age? Problems with encoding, storage, retrieval, brain deteriorating
What are neurological changes related to memory? Disorders and diseases can deteriorate different parts of the brain, Alzheimer's affects working/semantic/episodic memory, normal memory processing and storage in frontal lobes and hippocampus
How can problems in encoding, storage and retrieval affect memory in late adulthood? Encoding-older adults don't do as well, forget how to use strategies; storage-material deteriorates where retrieval becomes impossible, “storage failure”; retrieval-takes older adults longer to search their memories
How can emotional factors affect memory? Stress can make it harder to remember, older adults are motivated to preserve memories that have positive emotional meaning
What is wisdom? Exceptional breadth/depth of knowledge about conditions of life and human affairs and reflective judgment about application of knowledge, insight/awareness of uncertain, transcendence (detach from preoccupation with self), synthesis of reason & emotion
What are various approaches to the study of wisdom? Responses to hypothetical dilemmas, use factual and procedural knowledge about human condition, awareness of circumstances
What are Baltes’s findings from studies of wisdom? Only 5% of tested people were rated wise, rare attribute, not necessarily property of old age, distributed evenly across the age groups
What gains and losses in cognitive abilities tend to occur in late adulthood? Gain-intelligence, problem solving, cognitive abilities, vocabulary; lose-processing abilities, short-term memory, long-term memory, encoding/storage/retrieval
Are there ways to improve older people's cognitive performance? Cognitive stimulation
Why are efforts to combat ageism making headway? Visibility of growing number of active, healthy older adults
What is the fastest growing age group? People over 80
What is happening to the proportion of older people in the United States and in the world? Greater than ever before, expected to continue to grow
Which type of aging can is beyond people's control? Which type of aging can be avoided? Primary aging is beyond people's control, secondary aging can avoid effects
What are the different types of old according to some specialists and the study of aging? Young old-age 65 to 74, old old-over age 75, oldest old-over age 85
When do specialists in the study of aging refer to the terms young old, old old and oldest old? Referring to different ages of older people, more useful when referring to functional age
What has happened to life expectancy? Increase dramatically, longer people live, the longer they are likely to live
Who is life expectancy greatest among? Greater in developed countries than developing countries, among white Americans than African-Americans, among women than men
What do recent gains in life expectancy come largely from? Well will it further improvements come from? Progress towards reducing death rates from diseases, modified basic processes of aging
What 2 categories to the theories of biological aging fall into? Genetic-programming theory, variable-rate theory (or error theory) what has changed the idea of a biological limits of the lifespan?
What happens to changes in body systems and organs with age? Highly variable, most continue to function fairly well, heart becomes more susceptible to disease
What happens to reserve capacity with age? Declines
What changes happen to the brain with age? Changes are modest, loss of volume and weight, slowing of responses, grows new neurons, build new connections late in life
What can lead to poor nutrition and older adults? Losses and taste and smell
What can interfere with daily life of older adults that can be corrected? Vision and hearing problems
What can cause irreversible damage of the eyes in older adults? Macular degeneration, glaucoma
What can training in older adults improve? Muscular strength, balance, reaction time
What are older adults more susceptible to? Accidents and falls
What are the sleep patterns of older adults? Sleep less, dream last
What can be an indication of depression in older adults? Chronic insomnia
Describe sexual activity in older adults. Remain sexually active, intensity of sexual experience is generally lower
Describe the average physical health of an older adult. Reasonably healthy, especially if they follow a healthy lifestyle, chronic conditions, do not generally limit activities or interfere with daily life
What are important influences on health? Exercise, diet
Why can seriously affect nutrition? Loss of teeth
Describe the average mental health of an older adult. Good mental health, depression, alcoholism, many other conditions, Alzheimer's
What are mental health conditions that can be reversed? Depression, alcoholism, other conditions
What are mental health conditions that are irreversible? Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease
What happens to his Alzheimer's disease with age? Becomes more prevalent
What are factors for getting Alzheimer's disease? Highly heretical, diet, exercise, other lifestyle factors
What benefit does cognitive activity play against Alzheimer's disease? Protective, builds up cognitive reserve, enables brain to function under stress
What may slow the deterioration of Alzheimer's disease? Behavior and drug therapies
What can be early signs of Alzheimer's disease? Mild cognitive impairment, researchers Developing tools for early diagnosis
On the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), what portion do older adults do best on? Better on verbal portion then performance portion
According to the Seattle longitudinal study, what happens to cognitive functioning in late adulthood? Highly variable, few people decline in all or most areas, many people improve in some areas
What types of problems are older adults most effective in solving? Practical problems that have emotional relevance for them
In older adults, what may affect the speed of information processing? General slowdown of central nervous system functioning
What may be a predictor of longevity? Intelligence
What 3 types of memory are nearly as efficient in older adults as younger adults? Sensory memory, semantic memory, procedural memory
What 3 parts of memory are NOT as efficient in older adults as younger adults? Capacity of working memory, ability to recall specific events, recently learned information
In older adults, what parts of vocabulary and speech decline? Oral word retrieval, spelling, grammatical complexity, content of speech
What may account for much of the decline in memory functioning in older adults? Neurological changes, problems in encoding, storage, retrieval
What do older people show plasticity in? What can benefit this? Cognitive performance, can benefit from training
What did Baltes’s studies of wisdom show? Wisdom is not age-related, people of all ages get wiser responses to problems affecting their own age group
Created by: love_fire_roses
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards