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Module 36

UNIT 5 Thinking and Language

phoneme in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
morpheme in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).
grammar in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. Semantics is the language's set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, and syntax is its set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences
babbling stage beginning around 4 months, the stage of speech development in which an infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
one-word stage the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
two-word stage beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements.
telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-"go car"-using mostly nouns and verbs.
aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
Broca's area helps control language expression-an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs muscle movements involved in speech.
Wernicke's area a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
linguistic determinism the strong form of Whorf's hypothesis-that language controls the way we think and interpret the world around us.
linguistic influence the weaker form of "linguistic relativity"-the idea that language affects thought (thus our thinking and world view is "relative to" our cultural language).
Created by: chujacqueline
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