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# AP Psych Unit 2

Term | Definition |
---|---|

hindsight bias | the tendency to believe, after the learning of the outcome, that you could have foreseen it |

critical thinking | involves examining assumptions, discerning hidden values, evaluating evidence, and assessing conclusions |

scientific method | a system used to construct and evaluate scientific ideas and theories using observation and analysis |

theory | an explanation that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events |

hypothesis | a testable prediction that puts a theory to the test by specifying the expected results |

operational definition | a carefully worded statement of exact procedures of a study |

replication | in order for an experiment to be valid, its results must be replicable |

descriptive research | research that aims to observe and describe behaviors |

case study | a research technique in which one person or a group of people is studied in depth with the goal of revealing universal principles |

naturalistic observation | a research technique that involves watching subject’s behaviors in their natural environment without intervention |

survey method | a research technique that questions a sample of people to gather information about their attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors |

framing | the way a question is worded or framed can change the results of a survey |

false consensus effect | the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors |

social desirability | the tendency of survey respondents to respond in a manor that will be viewed favorably by others |

sampling bias | a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample of people |

longitudinal study | a study that follows the same group of people over a long period of time |

cross-sectional study | a study that compares individuals at different age groups at one time to compare results |

cross-sequential study | a study that combines longitudinal study and cross sectional study by looking at multiple age groups over time |

correlation | a mutual connection between two variables |

correlation coefficient | a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables |

scatterplot | a method we use to graph correlational data |

positive correlation | the value of one variable increases as the value of the other variable increases |

negative correlation | the value of one variable increases as the value of the other variable decreases |

illusory correlation | the perception of a relationship where none exists |

experiment | involves the manipulation of one or more factors to observe the effect on other factors |

experimental group | the group of subjects that gets exposed to the independent variable or the change in the independent variable |

control group | the group of subjects that do not get exposed to the independent variable and serves as a baseline for comparison |

random assignment | occurs when every participant in the study has an equal chance of being placed in the experimental group or the control group |

confirmation bias | the tendency to search for information that confirms one’s belief of hypothesis while ignoring contradictory information |

single-blind procedure | helps avoid confirmation bias because participants do not know who is receiving particular treatment |

double-blind procedure | helps avoid confirmation bias because neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is receiving a particular treatment |

placebo effect | when experimental results are caused by expectation alone |

independent variable | the factor that is manipulated by the experimenter |

dependent variable | the factor that is affected by the independent variable |

confounding variable | a factor other than the independent variable that could affect the dependent variable |

random sample | when participants for the study are chosen randomly from the entire population |

descriptive statistics | used to measure and describe certain characteristics of groups |

histogram | a graphical representation of descriptive statistics |

mean | the average score |

median | the middle score |

mode | the most frequently occurring score |

skewed distribution | a representation of scores that lack symmetry |

range | the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution |

standard deviation | a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean |

normal curve | a symmetrical, bell shaped curve where most scores fall near the mean and fewer scores fall near the extremes |

inferential statistics | numerical measures that allow one to generalize to a larger population |

statistical significance | the likelihood that the results occur by chance (p=5%) |

nominal scale | numerical scale used to name or categorize |

ordinal scale | numerical scale that represents serial position |

interval scale | numerical scale that uses consistent units of measurement with equal spacing between each but with no true zero |

ratio scale | numerical scale that uses consistent units of measurement with equal spacing and with a true zero |

frequency distribution | displays the format of various outcomes in table format, allowing us to see clusters or patterns |

frequency polygon | each score’s frequency of occurrence is marked with a point, then all points are connected with a line |

ethical guidelines | guidelines that psychological studies must follow in order to make the study safe and ethical for the participants |