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Ch. 8 Review

based on textbook

Multiple-choice questions test our... recognition
Fill-in the blank questions test our... recall
Students often have an easier time reviewing information for the final than they did when initially learning this material at the beginning of the semester. This is an example of... relearning
Why would it be better to test your memory with recall than with recognition prior to an upcoming test? recalling information is harder than recognizing, so if you can recall it, then your retention is better, and you will be more successful
What occurs when we encode memories via elaboration? we extract meaning from them or make them meaningful to us, for example, by connecting information learned in one place with information learned into another
In the expanded three-stage model of memory, what occurs after an external event, but prior to sensory memory? sensory input
What are the three types of incidental information that our brain uses automatic processing to encode? space, time, and frequency
What are three examples of familiar or well-learned information that our brain can use automatic processing to encode? sounds, smells, and word meanings
Automatic processing produces ____ memories, while effortful processing produces ____ memories. implicit; explicit
While studying, you often encode the place where certain material appears; later, you may visualize its location when you want to retrieve the information. This is an example of how we automatically process information about... space
While going about your day, you note the sequence of its events. Later, realizing you've left your phone somewhere, this event sequence will enable you to retrace your steps. This is an example of how we automatically process information about... time
You effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen, such as when you realize, "This is the third time I've run into that person today!" This is an example of how we automatically process information about... frequency
Iconic memories are photographic or picture-image memories that last no more than... a few tenths of a second
If attention is elsewhere, sounds and words, which are echoic memories, can still be recalled within... 3 or 4 seconds
At which of Atkinson-Shiffrin's three memory stages would iconic and echoic memory occur? sensory memory
The level of processing that tends to yield the best retention is ____ processing. deep
Although cramming and rereading may lead to short-term gains in knowledge, distributed practice and repeated ____ will result in the greatest long-term retention. self-testing
If you try to make the material you are learning personally meaningful, are you processing at a shallow or deep level? deep level of processing
A psychologist who asks you to write down as many objects as you can remember having seen a few minutes earlier is testing your recall
The psychological terms for taking in information, retaining it, and later getting it back out are ____, ____, and ____. enconding; storage; retrieval
The concept of working memory clarifies the idea of short-term memory by focusing on the active processing that occurs in this stage
Sensory memory may be visual (____ memory) or auditory (____ memory). iconic; echoic
Our short-term memory for new information is limited to about ____ bits of information. seven
Memory aids that use visual imagery or other organizational devices are called ____. mnemonics
What are the two basic functions of working memory? actively integrating new information with existing long-term memories and focusing our spotlight of attention
____ processing occurs unconsciously for such things as the sequence and frequency of a day's events, and reading and comprehending words in our own language(s). automatic
____ processing requires attentive awareness and happens, for example, when we work hard to learn new material in class, or new lines for a play. effortful
Which parts of the brain are important for implicit memory processing? the cerebellum and basal ganglia
Which parts of the brain play a key role in explicit memory processing? the frontal lobes and hippocampus
Which part of the brain is critical to the formation of our emotion-related memories? the amygdala
Which brain area responds to stress hormones by helping to create stronger memories? the amygdala
Increased efficiency at the synapses is evidence of the neural basis of learning and memory. This is called long-term potentiation
What is priming? the activation, often without our awareness, of associations
When we are tested immediately after viewing a list of words, we tend to recall the first and last items best, which is known as the ____ ____ effect. serial position
The hippocampus seems to function as a temporary processing site for explicit memories
Hippocampus damage typically leaves people unable to learn new facts or recall recent events. However, they may be able to learn new skills, such as riding a bicycle, which is an ____ memory. implicit
Long-term potentiation (LTP) refers to an increase in a cell's firing potential
Specific odors, visual images, emotions, or other associations that help us access a memory are examples of retrieval cues
When you feel sad, why might it help to look at pictures that reawaken some of your best memories? because, by way of mood-congruent memory, reflecting on happy memories may improve your mood and brighten your interpretation of current events
When tested immediately after viewing a list of words, people tend to recall the first and last items more readily than those in the middle. When retested after a delay, they are more likely to recall the first items on the list
What are the three ways we forget? encoding failure, storage decay, and retrieval failure
How does encoding failure happen? unattended information never entered our memory system
How does storage decay happen? information fades from our memory
How does retrieval failure happen? we cannot access stored information accurately, sometimes due to interference or motivated forgetting
Freud believed that we ____ unacceptable memories to minimize anxiety. repress
What - given the commonness of source amnesia - might life be like if we remembered all our waking experiences and all our dreams? real experiences would be confused with those we dreamed
Which memory strategies can help you study smarter and retain more information? rehearse repeatedly, make the material meaningful, activate retrieval cues, use mnemonic devices, minimize proactive and retroactive interference, sleep more, and test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to find out what you don't yet know
When forgetting is due to encoding failure, information has not been transferred from short-term memory into long-term memory
Ebbinghaus's forgetting curve shows that after an initial decline, memory for novel information tends to level off
You will experience less ____ interference if you learn new material in the hour before sleep than you will if you learn it before turning to another subject. retroactive
Freud proposed that painful or unacceptable memories are blocked from consciousness through a mechanism called repression
One reason false memories form is our tendency to fill in memory gaps with our reasonable guesses and assumptions, sometimes based on misleading information. This tendency is an example of the misinformation effect
Eliza's family loves to tell the story of how she "stole the show" as a 2-year-old, dancing at her aunt's wedding reception. Even though she was so young, Eliza says she can recall the event clearly. How might Eliza have formed this memory? she likely constructed the memory after hearing the story many times
We may recognize a face at a social gathering but be unable to remember how we know that person. This is an example of ____ ____. source amnesia
When a situation triggers the feeling that "I've been here before," you are experiencing ____ ____ deja vu
Children can be accurate eyewitnesses if a neutral person asks nonleading questions soon after the event
Memory researchers involved in the study of memories of abuse tend to disagree with some therapists about whether or not we tend to repress extremely upsetting memories
____ ____, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories. source amnesia
Most researchers agree that sexual abuse, injustice, forgetting, and memory construction all happen
Most researchers agree that recovered memories are common
Most researchers agree that memories from before age 4 are unreliable
Most researchers agree that memories claimed to be recovered through hypnosis are especially unreliable
Most researchers agree that memories, whether real or imagined, can be emotionally upsetting
Created by: ccons
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