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Geo ch.9 (2)

Food and Agriculture

agribusiness the system of commercial farming found in developed countries
monocropping the practice of growing the same single crop every year after year
winter wheat belt Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma – plant in fall, harvest in summer
spring wheat belt Dakotas, Montana, and southern Saskatchewan in Canada – plant in spring, harvest in late summer
wheat world’s leading export crop
horticulture the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
commercial (or market) gardening and fruit farming the predominant type of agriculture in the southeastern United States
truck farming from the Middle English word truck, meaning “barter” or “exchange of commodities”
specialty farming a form of truck farming that has spread to New England – crops with limited but increasing demand
ranching the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area
dairy farm specializes in the production of milk and other dairy products
milkshed the ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling
mixed crop and livestock integration of crops and livestock
Corn Belt the most important mixed crop and livestock farming region in the United States—extending from Ohio to the Dakotas, with its center in Iowa
Johann Heinrich von Thünen an estate owner in northern Germany, first proposed the von Thünen model in 1826, in a book titled The Isolated State
von Thünen model a commercial farmer initially considers which crops to cultivate and which animals to raise based on market location. In choosing an enterprise, the farmer compares two costs: the cost of the land and the cost of transporting products to market.
1st ring market-oriented gardens and milk producers, expensive and perishable, must be delivered quickly
2nd ring wood lots, where timber was cut for construction and fuel, needs closeness to the market because of its weight
3rd ring various crops and pasture, rotated from one year to the next
4th ring devoted exclusively to animal grazing, which requires lots of space
Public Law 480, the Agricultural, Trade, and Assistance Act of 1954 US passed this, sale of grain at low interest rates, grants to needy groups of people
cocaine derived from coca leaf, most of which is grown in Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia
opiod encompasses opiates, which are drugs, such as heroin, derived from the opium poppy plant – also refers to synthetic substances manufactured into pain medicine
marijuana produced from the Cannabis sativa plant
desertification human actions that cause land to deteriorate to a desert-like condition
waterlogged land inadequate drainage in irrigated land can cause underground water level to rise
2nd agricultural revolution began in the United Kingdom in the seventeenth century, increased productivity through improvement of crop rotation and breeding of livestock
Ester Boserup economist who said population growth influences the distribution of types of subsistence farming
forest fallow farmland left long enough for a forest to grow
bush fallow farmland left long enough for bushes to grow
short fallow farmland left long enough for grasses to grow
annual cropping farmland used every year
multi-cropping farmland used multiple times a year
Green Revolution the invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques during the 1970s and 1980s
International Rice Research Institute developed hybrid rice seed in the 1960s
nitrogen critical element that improves soil fertility: ubiquitous substance, cheapest is from natural gas or petroleum
phosphorus critical element that improves soil fertility: China, Morocco, and the United States
potash (potassium) critical element that improves soil fertility: Canada, Russia, and Ukraine
Genetically Modified Organism (GMO a living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology
Monsanto creator of seeds resistant to weed killer (roundup ready), created Roundup
organic agriculture farming that depends on the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances, such as herbicides, pesticides, and growth hormones
herbicides a chemical to control unwanted plants
pesticides a substance to control pests, including weeds
conservation tillage a method of soil cultivation that reduces soil erosion and runoff
no tillage leaves all of the soil undisturbed
ridge tillage a system of planting crops on ridge tops
surface water water that travels or gathers on the ground, such as in rivers, streams, and lakes
groundwater water that is pumped out from the ground
Created by: imr36093
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