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Geo ch.9

Food and Agriculture

dietary energy consumption the amount of food that an individual consumes
kilocalorie the unit of measurement of dietary energy in the US
food security physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life
undernourishment dietary energy consumption that is continuously below that needed for a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity
cereal grain a grass that yields grain for food
grain the seed from a cereal grass
3 leading grains wheat, maize, and corn
protein a nutrient needed for growth and maintenance of the human body
agriculture the deliberate modification of Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain
crop any plant cultivated by people
Agricultural Revolution the process that began when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering - around 8000 BCE
Colombian Exchange the transfer of plants and animals, as well as people, culture, and technology, between the Western Hemisphere and Europe, as a result of European colonialization and trade
subsistence agriculture the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer’s family
commercial agriculture the production of cash crops primarily for sale off the farm
cash crop a crop that is grown for sale, rather than for the farmer’s own use
Derwent Whittlesey geographer who created a map of world agricultural regions in 1936
intensive subsistence agriculture the form of subsistence agriculture that feeds most of the people in developing countries
double cropping obtaining two harvests per year from one field
crop rotation the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil
wet rice rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved as seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth
sawah name for a flooded field in Indonesia
paddy what a flooded field is increasingly referred to, which is the Malay word for wet rice
shifting cultivation a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift frequently from one field to another
slash-and-burn farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris
frequent relocation farmers grow crops on a cleared field for only a few years, until soil nutrients are depleted, and then leave it fallow (with nothing planted) for many years so the soil can recover
pastoral nomadism a form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals in dry climates, where planting crops is impossible
cattle dry lands of East Africa – feed on scrub and grasses – high milk yield
camels arid climates – go long periods without water, carry heavy baggage, and move rapidly
goats need more water than camels – tough and agile – can survive on virtually any vegetation
sheep slow moving – affected by climactic changes – require more water and are more selective about food
transhumance seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas
plantation a large commercial farm in a developing country that specializes in one or two crops
fishing the capture of wild fish and other seafood living in the waters
aquaculture/aquafarming the cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions
overfishing capturing fish faster than they can reproduce
Created by: imr36093
Popular Geography sets




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