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Psychology- test 1

Abnormal psych, chapters 1,2,4,5

Approaches to defining abnormality Norm Violation, Statistical Rarity, Personal Discomfort, Maladaptive Behavior
Norm violation violating the rights/wrongs defined by society
Statistical rarity deviating from the average, bell curve
Personal discomfort something causing a person distress or alarm
maladaptive behavior behavior patterns that prevent demands of life from being met
harmful dysfunction includes both a factual and value component, dysfunction and harm
medical model each disorder has its specific set of symptoms and cause
criticisms of medical model -medical way of thinking -not all disorders have biological cause -labeling -gave people an excuse of their behavior since they were "sick"
psychological model disorder is caused by psychological processes and environment interaction
psychological perspectives psychodynamic behavioral cognitive interpersonal sociocultural
deinstitutionalization discharge of thousands of patients from asylums
psychogenic theories theory that psychological disturbance is due primarily to stress -came from study of hypnosis at Nancy School
goals of assessment and diagnosis description prescription
criticism of DSM diagnosis -diagnosis tied to medical model -falsifies reality -gives illusion of explanation -diagnostic labeling
axis of DSM I-clinical syndromes II-personality disorders and mental retardation III-general medical disorders IV-psychosocial and environmental problems V-global assessment of functioning
assessment types interview psychological tests laboratory tests natural setting observations
interview face to face conversation -structured and unstructured weakness: bias of interviewer
psychological tests based on psychometric approach, standard procedures with objective scoring - IQ, projective personality tests, self report inventory (most frequently used), neuropsychological tests strengths: takes into account individual differences
laboratory tests measures the function of nervous system strengths: detects psychogenic disorders, reals things patient may be unaware of, more precise than other measures weakness: interpreting psychological significance
natural setting observation takes into consideration the person and the environment interaction strengths: no self report, assessment of person and situation weaknesses: time and interpretation, presence of observer maybe be reactive
projective hypothesis under conditions of assigning meaning to ambiguous stimuli, persons unconscious motives will manifest
psychometric approach locating underlying characteristics or traits
MMPI-2 minessota multiphasic personality inventory *most widely used self report test -compares subjects answers to diagnostic groups and interprets pattern of responces
assumptions of behavioral approach -views behavior as a result of environment and learning
Thorndike came up with law of effect -the relation between behavior and consequence ex: behaviors leading to good consequences are strengthened
Skinner Operant conditioning
Operant conditioning the increase/decrease of a behavior though its consequences -reinforcement and punishment
Pavlov Classical conditioning (respondent conditioning) -neutral stimulus placed with non neutral stimulus for learning *salvating dogs
Watson "Father of behaviorism" -psychology should focus on observable and measurable behavior -emotions are a conditioned responce (*little albert)
Pavlonian/ Respondent conditioning(classical) matching an ucs with a ucr (the natural behavior) with a cs and a cr (the desired response)
positive reinforcement consequence that strengthens response
negative reinforcement consequence that strengthens the response by taking a stimulus away
punishment suppresses a behavior
extinction elimination of a response through removal of reinforcer
generalization responding the same to similar stimuli
shaping reinforcing every successive approximation of desired responce
discrimination learning to distinguish response between similar stimulus and appropriate stimulus
behavioral therapy techniques systematic desensitization exposure contingency management
Created by: barbarad618