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Modules 16-19

Sensation Process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
Bottom-up processing Analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information Ex. Flower: enables sensory systems to detect lines, angles, and colors that form the flower and the leaves
Sensory receptors Sensory nerve endings that respond to stimuli
perception the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
top-down processing information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations Ex.Flower: interpret what our senses detect
Selective Attention Focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
Cocktail Party effect Example of selective attention - your ability to attend to one voice among a sea of other voices
Selective Inattention Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
In-attentional Blindness As soon as I selectively attend, I will miss other components
change blindness failing to notice changes in the environment; a form of inattentional blindness
choice blindness difficulty to detect discrepancies between a choice and its outcome and a tendency to justify choices which were never made.
change deafness perceptual phenomenon that occurs when, under certain circumstances, a physical change in auditory stimulus goes unnoticed by the listener
pop-out phenomenon faster recognition/awareness of a unique stimulus that grabs the attention of an individual in comparison to similar outstanding stimuli
receive... sensory stimulation, often using specialized receptor cells
transform... That stimulation into neural impulses
deliver.... the neural information to our brain
Transduction conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret
Psychophysics the study if relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
Gustav Fechner and Absolute threshold German scientist and philosopher studied the edge of our awareness of these faint stimuli, which he called their absolute thresholds. Absolute Threshold - the minimum stimulus energy needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
Absolute threshold example to detect abs threshold for noise, hearing specialists would send tones at varying levels into each ear-results show points for any sound frequency, half the time you could detect the sound and half the time you couldn't, 50-50 point defines abs.threshold
Signal detection a theory predicting when/how we detect the presence of a faint stimulus(signal) and background stimulation(noise). Assume there is no single abs.threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectation, motivation, and alertness
Subliminal below one's abs. threshold for conscious awareness (stimuli you cannot consciously detect 50% of the time)
difference threshold the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. we experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference (jnd). (minimum stimulus difference a person can detect half the time)
priming something to get you ready for an association
ernst Webers law the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage(rather than a constant amount)
sensory adaptation diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
perceptual set a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
context and interpretation recalling our own perception in different contexts(ex. imagine hearing a noise interrupted by the words "eel is on the wagon"you would hear the word "wheel."context creates an expectation that influences our perception of a perviously heard phrase)
motivation and interpretation motives gives us energy as we work toward a goal. (ex. A to be climbed hill can seem steeper when we are carrying a heavy backpack, and a walking destination can seem further when we are tired)
emotion interpretation emotions can shove our perceptions in one direction or another(ex. hearing sad music can predispose people to perceive a sad meaning in spoken homophonic words - mourning rather than morning)
extrasensory perception the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from our sensory input, includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition
parapsychology the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
wavelength distance from one light or sound wave peak to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of gamma rays to the long pulses of radio transmission
wavelengths determine____ or the color of something hue's
intensity or Amplitude the amount of energy in a light wave or sound wave... the amplitude helps determine brightness(color) or loudness(sound)
cornea eye's clear protective outer layer, covering the pupil and iris
pupil an adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
iris a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
lens the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
retina(where transduction happens) light sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
accommodation in sensation and perception, the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
rods retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray, and are sensitive to movement; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
cones retinal receptors that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. cones detect fine details and give rise4 to color sensations
bipolar and ganglion cells bipolar cells transfer visual information to ganglion cells in the retina. because of these cells we are able to see things from eyes
optic nerve the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
blind spot the point of which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind spot" because no receptor cells are located there.
fovea the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
thalamus in relation to vision after processing by bipolar and ganglion cells in the eyes retina, neural impulses travel through the optic nerve to the thalamus and on to the visual cortex
cortex abde lobe in relation to vision visual cortex located in the occipital lobe
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory proposed that the retina contains three types of color receptors. Contemporary research has found three types of cones, each most sensitive to the wavelengths of one of the three primary colors of light (red, green, and blue)
opponent-process theory the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, blue-yellow, white-black) enable color vision. For example some cells ares stimulated by green and inhibited by red others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
David huber and Torsten Wiesel feature detectors nerve cells in the brain's visual cortex that respond to specific features of the stiumuls, such as shape, angle, or movement
face recognition processing hemisphere+lobe right hemisphere temoral lobe
parallel processing processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions
gestalt an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate piece4s of information processing for many functions
figure-ground the organizational concept of the visual fields into objects(the figures) that stand out from their surroundings(the ground)
grouping the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
proximity we group nearby figures together.
continuity we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones.
closure we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object
depth perception the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance
visual cliff and research a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young orphans
binocular cue depends on the use of two eyes
convergence inward angle of the eyes focusing on near objects
retinal disparity a binocular cue for perceiving depth. by comparing retinal images from the two eyes, the brain computes distance the greater the disparity between the two images the closer the object
monocular tue a depth cue available to either one eye alone
relative height perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away
relative size if we assume two objects are similar in size, most people perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away
interposition if one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer
relative motion as we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move
linear perspective parallel lines appear to meet in the distance. the sharper the angle of convergence the greater the perceived distance
light and shadow shading procduces a sense of depth consistent with our assumptions that light comes from above. I you invert this illusion, the hollow will become the hill
perceptual constancy perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent color, shape, and size) even illumination and retinol images change
color constancy perceiving familiar objects as having a consistent color, even if changing illumination changes/ alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
brightness/lightness constancy similarity depends on context. we perceive an object as having a constant brightness even as its illumination varies
relative luminance the amount of light an object reflect relative to its surroundings
shape constancy we perceive the form of familiar objects as constant even while our retinas receive changing images of them
sizse constancy we perceive an object as having an unchanging rise even while our distance from it varies ex. we assume that a car is large enough ti carry people even when we. see its tiny image from two blocks away
muller-lyer Illusion two lines of the same length appear to be of different lengths
critical period an optimal period when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences is required
perceptual adaptation the ability to adjust to changed sensory input, including an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.
Created by: Caitlyncarnell
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