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Psych Vocab 2

Biological Bases of Behavior Vocab (Modules 3 + 4)

Action potential tiny electric currents that are generated when positive ions rush into the axon; increase of sodium ions causes inside of axon to reverse charge; inside becomes positive when outside becomes negative
Alzheimer's disease irreversible; progressive brain disease that slowly destroys individual's memory and thought process
Axon single, threadlike structure that extends from and carries signals away from cell body to other neurons, organs , or muscles
Axon membrane chemical gates that open for electrically charged particles to enter or close to keep out electrically charged particles
Basal ganglia group of structures in the center of the brain that are involved in regulating movement
Cell body (soma) egg-shaped structure that provides fuel, manufactures chemicals, maintains neuron's entire order
Central nervous system neutrons located in the brain and spinal cord
Dendrites branchlike extensions from cell body; receive signals from other neurons, muscles sense organs and pass the signals to the cell body
Dopamine excitatory neurotransmitter that affects neurons involved in voluntary movement, learning, memory, emotions, sleep, motivation, and reward
Endorphins chemicals produces by brain; secreted in response to injuring or severe physical or psychological stress
Glial cell three well-established functions: provides scaffolding to growth of neurons and supports mature neurons; wraps around neurons to form insulation to prevent interference from other electrical signals; releases chemicals influence neuron growth and function
Myelin sheath separate tubelike segments made of fatty material that wraps around/insulates axon; prevents interference in electrical signals and helps them travel in the axon
Nerve stringlike bundles of axons/dendrites extending from spinal cord; carries information from sense, muscles, body organs to and from spinal cord; nerves in peripheral NS able to regrow and reattach when damaged
Neurogenesis process of developing new neurons
Neuron brain cell with two specialized extensions, one for receiving signals, one for transmitting signals
Neuroscience interdisciplinary field of scientific study that examines structure and function of all part of nervous system including brain, spinal cord, networks of brain cells
Peripheral nervous system made of nerves which are located throughout the body except for brain and spinal cord
Phantom limb feelings and sensation from limb that's been removed/amputated; sensations/movement are vivid, as if limb is still there
Reflex unlearned, involuntary reaction to some stimuli; neural connections/network is prewired by genetic instructions
Reuptake processes through which some neurotransmitters ,like dopamine, are removed from synapse by being transported back into end bulbs
Serotonin inhibitory neurotransmitter that affects neurons involved in mood, sleep, appetite, and pain suppression
Synapse indefinitely small space that exists between end bulbs and adjacent body organs, muscle, or cell bodies
Neurotransmitter dozens of chemicals that are made by neurons and used for communication between neurons during mental'physical activities
Amygdala tip of temporal lobe; receives input from all senses; major oles in evaluating stimuli and facial expression, especially fear, distress, threat
Auditory association area below primary auditory cortex, transforms basic sensory info (noise, sounds) into recognizable auditory information (words, music)
Autonomic nervous system regulates heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, digestion, hormone secretions, other; functions without conscious effort, only few can be controlled voluntarily (breathing)
Broca's aphasia result of damage in Broca's area: person cannot speak in fluent sentences but can understand written and spoken word
Broca's area locates in left, frontal lobe that's necessary to combine sounds into words and words into sentences
Central nervous system brian and spinal cord; bottom of brain emerges spinal cord (made up of neurons and bundles of axons/dendrites that carry info back and forth between brain and body)
Cerebellum very back, under brain; coordinates movement, but not initiating voluntary movements. Involved in performing timed motor responses and autonomic/reflective learning
Cortex surface of brain; thin layer of cells that cover surface of forebrain; majority of neurons in the cortex (wrinkles make sure to cover large surface area)
EEG electroencephalograph; putes electrodes on scalp, which measure changes in electrical voltages at points along scalp that provides information about brain activity
Endocrine system made up of numerous glands located throughout the body; glands secrete hormones that affect muscles, organs, and other glands
Fight-flight response state of increased physiological arousal casued by activation of sympathetic division, helps body cope and survive threatening situations
fMRI scan brain scan that measures the activity of specific neurons that are functioning during cognitive tasks like thinking, listening, reading
Forebrain largest part,; hemispheres responsible for learning/memory, speaking/language, emotional response, experiencing sensations, initiating voluntary movement, planning, decision making
Frontal lobe involved with personality, emotions, motor behaviors, involuntary movements, behavior in social situations, making decisions, executive functions like planning, decisions, reasoning, etc.
Hindbrian found in primitive brains, have been constant for years; contain the pons, medulla, cerebellum
Hippocampus curved in temporal lobe; saving memories int various parts of brain
Hormones chemicals that glands secrete that affects muscles organs, and other glands
Hypothalamus regulates motivational behaviors; arousing body in fight or flight; secretes hormones during puberty
Left Hemisphere verbal: good at all language abilities; mathematical: good at all math problems (right hem can only do simple); analytic: analyzes each part of whole; recognizing self: conscious understanding of one's self distinct from others
Limbic System group of dozen interconnected structures that make up core of forebrain; involved with motivation behaviors (food, drink, sex); organizes emotional behaviors like fear, anger, aggression; involved with storing memories
Medulla top of spinal cord; cells that control vital reflexes: respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, breathing (unconscious)
Midbrain reward/pleasure center; areas of visual/auditory reflexes (moving head towards sound); contains reticular formation, which arouses forebrain so it can process information
Motor cortex involved in initiation of all voluntary movements; right motor cortex controls left muscles, vice versa
Occipital lobe involved with processing visual information; includes seeing colors, perceiving/recognizing objects, animals, people
Parietal lobe involved with perception and sensory experiences
Peripheral nervous system includes all nerves that extend from spinal cord and carries messages to muscles, glands, and sense organs located throughout body
Pituitary gland key component of endocrine system, directly below hypothalamus; connected to hypothalamus by narrow stalk; divided into anterior and posterior sections
Pons bridge to transmit messages between spinal cord and brain; makes chemicals for sleep
Right hemisphere nonverbal: understands simple sentences and reads simple words; spatial: solves spatial problems (like geometric holes and blocks); holistic: processes info by making parts into whole; recognizing others: can recognize other faces but not own
Somatic nervous system network of nerves connected to either sensory receptors or muscles that you move voluntarily (limbs, back neck, chest); nerves in system contain afferent/sensory fibers (carry info from sensory receptors) or efferent/motor fibers,info from brain to muscle
Somatosensory cortex processes sensory info about touch, location of limbs, paon, temperature; right cortex receives left, etc.
Temporal lobe involved with hearing/speaking; involved with understanding verbals and written material
Thalamus receives sensory information, initial processing, relays sensory information to areas of cortex (somatosensory cortex, primary auditory cortex, primary visual cortex)
Created by: issa.marudo
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