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Peds test 1

212: musculoskeletal alignment from book

physiologic flexion normal hip, knee and elbow flex contractures seen in newborns
the spine is initially ___ in infants kyphotic
when does lordosis develop in infants? after prone prop
the pelvis is in ____ tilt at birth posterior
what helps position the pelvis in an anterior tilt over time? increase in lordosis and hip flexion contracture
the hip is ___ a birth and lax, can dislocate easily
neonates present with hip flexion contracture of about ____ degrees 30 (range varies between 50 and 120)
neonates lack hip ____ extension
neonates have large amounts of hip ____ abduction
neonates have more ____ rotation than ____ rotation at the hip lateral, medial
decreased lateral rotation is related to increased hip ____ extension
at birth the femur is in position as coxa ____ valga - increased angle of inclination
angle of inclination angle formed by the long axis of femur and an axis drawn through the head and neck of the femur
what causes angle of inclination to decrease with age weight bearing, compression and tension forces
torsion normal amount of rotation present in long bone
antetorsion when the head and neck of the femur are rotated forward Thigh in IR --> decreased ER
retrotorsion head and neck of the femur are backwardly rotated. Thigh in ER --> decreased IR
is the hip is antetorsion or retrotorsion at birth? antetorsion - reduces over time with WB
prolonged antetorsion leads to in-toeing, W sit preferred over cross legged
femoral version position of the head of the femur in the acetabulum relative to the posterior pelvis (frontal plane)
anteversion head of femur is anterior in acetabulum - thigh ER
retroversion head of femur is posterior in acetabulum - Thigh in IR
femoral anteversion is highest at ____ birth
the knee is in a knee ____ contracture of 20-30 degrees at birth flexion
apparent physiologic bowing tibia appears outwardly bowed Caused by slight forward rotation of tibia
tibiofemoral angle formed by longitudinal axis of femur and tibia
tibiofemoral angle of infant is in genu ____ varum (physiologic bowing) - may be up to 15 deg
slight ____ torsion of tibia is normal, ____ torsion is not external, internal
most children with genu valgum younger than 7 have _____ valgus that will resolve over time physiologic - won't need tx
if varus position of knees is not decreasing by ____ months to ____ years, tx may be needed 18-2
ankle and foot are very ____ at birth flexible
foot is in ____ (DF/PF) at birth and is generally more flat DF
when does longitudinal arch develop 10 yrs - often observable by 4
calcaneus and talus and inclined (medially/laterally) _____ medially - appears slightly inverted in NWB, but will evert in WB
foot should have a straight ____ border in WB and NWB lateral
metatarsus adductus foot that has a C curved lateral border, atypical
average age of walking worldwide 12.1 months
5 major indicators of mature gait 1. Single- leg stance 2. Velocity (distance/time) 3. Cadence (#steps/min) 4. Step length (distance) 5. Pelvic span to ankle spread ratio
Created by: bdavis53102
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