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learning any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience / practice
relatively permanent aspect of learning being associated with physical changes in the brain
Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov worked this study with salivating dogs
Classical Conditioning learning to make an involuntary response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces it
reflex unlearned, involuntary response that is not under personal control or choice
stimulus any object, event, experiences that causes response
response reaction of an organism
Unconditioned Stimulus the stimulus that ordinarily leads to an involuntary response
Unconditioned Stimulus eg. food
Unconditioned Response automatic / involuntary response to the unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Response eg. salivation to food
Conditioned Stimulus neural stimulus that begins to cause the same kind of involuntary response when paired repeatedly with UCS
Conditioned Response response given to the conditioned stimulus
Basic Principles for Classical Conditioning 1.) CS must come before UCS, 2.) CS and UCS must come very close together in time (<5sec) 3.) CS must be paired with the UCS many times 4.) CS must be distinct from other competing stimuli
Stimulus Generalization refers to the tendency to respond to stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus
Stimulus Discrimination occurs when an organism learns to respond to different stimuli in different ways
Extinction presentation of the CS in the absence of the UCS that leads to the reduction in the conditioned response
Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of a previously extinguished response
High order conditioning also called as "second order conditioning"
High order conditioning occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neural stimulus
High order conditioning the strong CS can actually play the part of a UCS and the previously neural stimulus becomes a second conditioned stimulus
Operant conditioning learning that applies to voluntary behavior
Operant conditioning both different and similar to classical conditioning
Edward Thorndike one of the researchers to explore and attempt to outline the laws of learning voluntary response
Law iof Effect Edward Thorndike
Law of effect if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated
Burrhus Frederick Skinner In addition to his Pavlovian Classical conditioning, he found the work of Thorndike to explain all behavior as the process of learning
Burrhus Frederick Skinner gave the learning of voluntary behavior a special name (Operant)
Reinforcement refers to any event / stimulus that when following a response increases the probability that the response will happen again.
Primary Reinforcers satisfy basic biological needs (hunger, touch, thirst)
Secondary Reinforcers gain reinforcing properties through previous association with primary reinforcers (money)
Positive Reinforcement addition / experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus
Negative Reinforcement removal escape / avoidance of unpleasant stimulus
Concepts of Reinforcement Primary reinforcers, Secondary Reinforcers, Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement
Elements of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus, Unconditioned Response, Conditioned Stimulus, Conditioned Response
Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Interval Schedule of Reinforcement, Variable Interval Schedule of Reinforcement, Fixed Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement, Variable Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement
Fixed interval schedule of reinforcement a reinforcer is received after a certain, fixed interval of time has passed
Variable Interval Schedule of Reinforcement the interval of time after which the individual must respond in order to receive a reinforcer
Fixed Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement number of responses that counts
Fixed Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement number of responses required to receive each reinforcer will always be the same number
Variable Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement number of responses changes from one trial to the next
Variable Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement the unpredictability of the variable schedule that makes the responses more or less continues
Punishment opposite of reinforcement
Punishment any event / stimulus that when following a response causes the response to be less likely to happen again
Punishment weakens responses
Reinforcement strengthen responses`
Punishment by Application occurs when something unpleasant (such as spanking, scolding / other unpleasant stimulus) is added to the situation is applied
Punishment by Removal behavior is punished by the removal of something pleasurable / desired after the behavior occurs
Shaping occurs in which small steps towards some ultimate goal are reinforced until the goal itself is reached
Extinction in Operant Conditioning removal of the reinforcement
GENERALIZATION in Operant Conditioning can be generalized to stimuli that are only similar to the original stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery In classical conditioning the recurrences of a conditioning response after extinction will also happen with operant responses
Cognitive Learning Theory focuses on role of cognition / thoughts process on learning
3 Notable Figure in Cognitive Learning Theory Edwad Tolman, Wolfgang Kohler, Martin Seligman
Latent Learning learning based on observation
Latent Learning Edward Tolman studied this with rats in a maze
Latent Learning suggested animals from a cognitive map of the physical layour od the maze
Latent Learning Performance not due to reinforcement
Latent Learning learning occurs but behavior not manifested until organism has reason to demonstrate it
Insight Learning Wolfgang Kohler worked with chimpanzees and set up a problem situation
Insight Learning Chimp first exhibited trial and error approach
Insight Learning Later appeared to experience a sudden insight into solving the problem (retrieving a banana) aha moment
Learned Helplessness Martin Seligman studied escape and avoidance learning in dogs
Learned Helplessness discovered that the anjmals did into a specific situation
Learned Helplessness tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a past history of repeated failure
Observational Learning the learning of a new behavior through the observation of a model, Bobo doll
Bobo doll Albert Bandura
4 elements of Observational Learning Attention, Memory, Imitation, Desire
Attention to learn anything fron an observation the learner must pay attention to the model
Memory the learner must also be able to retain the memory of what was done
Imitation the learner must be xapable of reproducing / imitating the actions of the model
Desire the learner must have the desire / motivation to perforn the action
Created by: therexe
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