Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Psych Unit 4

Sensation and Perception

Sensation The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
Perception The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Bottom-Up Processing Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
Top-Down Processing Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
Selective Attention The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
Inattentional Blindness Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.
Change Blindness Failing to notice changes in the environment.
Transduction Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret.
Psychophysics The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
Absolute Threshold The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time.
Signal Detection Theory A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). Assumes that there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience.
Subliminal Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
Priming The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.
Difference Threshold The minimum difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time.
Weber's Law The principle that to be perceived as different two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage.
Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
Perceptual Set A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
Extrasensory Perception (ESP) The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input, includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
Parapsychology The study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis.
Wavelength The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
Hue The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; What we know as the colors name's blue, green, and so forth
Intensity The amount of energy in a light/sound wave, which we perceive as brightness/loudness as determined by the waves amplitude.
Pupil The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
Iris A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored part of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
Lens The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
Retina The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones + layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
Accommodation The process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects in the retina.
Rods Retinal receptors that detect black, white and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones don't respond.
Cones Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit. Detects fine details and gives rise to color sensations.
Optic nerve The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
Blind Spot The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there.
Fovea The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.
Feature Detectors Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle or movement.
Parallel Processing The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many things (Like vision).
Three-Color Theory The retina contains 3 color receptors, red, green and blue.
Opponent-Processing Theory The theory that opposing retinal processes (red and green, yellow and blue, white and black) enable color vision.
Gestalt An organized whole. What people organize clusters of sensations into.
Figure-Ground The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)
Grouping The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.
Depth Perception The ability to see objects in 3 dimensions although the images are 2 dimensional; allows us to judge distance.
Visual Cliff A laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
Binocular Cues Depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depends on the use of 2 eyes.
Retinal Disparity A binocular cue for perceiving depth. The brain computes difference - the greater the disparity the closer the object.
Monocular Cues Depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone.
Phi Phenomenon An Illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession.
Perceptual Constancy Perceiving objects as unchanging (Having consistent shapes, sizes, brightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change.
Color Constancy Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.
Perceptual Adaptation In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.
Audition The sense or act of hearing.
Frequency The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second)
Pitch A tone's experienced highness or lowness, depends on frequency.
Eardrum A tight membrane that vibrates with sound.
Middle Ear The chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window.
Cochlea A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear; sound waves traveling through the cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses.
Inner Ear The innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
Sensonnerual Hearing Loss Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.
Conduction Hearing Loss (Less common) Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
Cochlear Implant A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.
Place Theory In hearing, the theory that link the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.
Frequency Theory In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense it's pitch.
Gate-Control Theory The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers
Kinesthesia The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.
Vestibular Sense The sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.
Sensory Interaction The principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its tastes.
Embodied Cognition In psychological science, the influence of bodily sensations, gestures, and other states on cognitive preferences and judgements.
Created by: emag
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards