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Unit 3 Test

Biological psychology a branch of psych concerned with the links between biology and behavior
Nervous system the body's speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system
Central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous syste, (CNS) connects CNS to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a communication relay going back and forth between the brain and the extremities
Somatic nervous system the division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also known as the skeletal nervous system
Autonomic nervous system the part of the PNS that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Controls the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
Sympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. "Fight or flight"
Parasympathetic nervous system the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy. "Rest and digest"
Reflex a simple, automatic response to sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
Neuron a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Sensory neurons neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
Interneurons neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Motor neurons neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
Soma (cell body) the neuron's life support center that also produces neurotransmitters
Dendrite the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receives messages and conducts impulses towards the cell body
Axon the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons, muscles, or glands
Myelin sheath a layer of fatty tissue that covers the axon which aides in the speed of neural impulses
Nodes of Ranvier spaces between the myelin
Schwann cell produces myelin
Action potential a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon
Ions electrically charged atoms
Resting potential the fluid interior of a resting axon has an excess of negatively charged ions, while the fluid outside the axon membrane has more positively charged ions
Selectively permeable the axon's surface is very selective about what it allows in
Polarized during the resting state of a neuron when the outside is positively charged and the inside is negatively charged
Depolarized axon is no longer at resting potential; outside is now negatively charged and inside is now positively charged
Refractory period resting state after firing in which the neuron goes back to its polarized resting state
Excitatory accelerates neuron's firing speed
Inhibitory slows neuron's firing speed
Threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Synapse the junction between the terminal branch of the synaptic gap
Synaptic gap/synaptic cleft the tiny gap at the synapse in which neurotransmitters cross.
Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.
Reuptake a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron.
Acetylcholine enables muscle action, learning, and memory
Dopamine influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Serotonin affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Norepinephrine helps control alertness and arousal
GABA a major inhibitory neurotransmitter
Glutamate a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
Endorphins natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
Agonist a molecule that may be similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor and mimic its effects
Antagonist a molecule that binds to receptors but blocks a neurotransmitter’s functioning.
Endocrine system the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Hormones chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.
Adrenal glands a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress.
Pituitary gland the endocrine system’s most influential gland; regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Lesion tissue destruction that is naturally or experimentally caused to help study regions and functions of the brain
Plasticity the brain’s ability to modify itself after tissue damage.
EEG (electroencephalogram) an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface
CT/CAT (computed tomography) a series of x-ray photographs of the brain taken from different angles and combined by computer to create an image that represents a slice through the brain.
PET (positron emission tomography) measures the different levels of activity in the brain by detecting where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain is performing a given task.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of different structures within the brain.
fMRI (functional MRI) a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function
Brainstem the oldest and innermost region of the brain that is responsible for automatic survival functions. It begins where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull.
Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard located on the top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex. It also transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Medulla part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing
Reticular Formation a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Cerebellum the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem that assists in balance and voluntary movements
Limbic system the doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that is associated with emotions (such as fear and aggression) and drives (such as those for food and sex).
Amygdala two almond-shaped neural clusters in the limbic system that are linked to emotions, especially fear, rage, and aggression
Hypothalamus located in the limbic system that lies below (hypo) the thalamus. It is responsible for the regulation of body maintenance such as eating, drinking, and body temperature.
Hippocampus the part of the limbic system responsible for memory and learning
Cerebral cortex/cerebrum the thin layer of interconnected neural cells that forms a surface layer on the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body’s ultimate control and information processing center. It is what makes humans upper-level thinking beings as opposed to animals
Glial cells “glue cells” in the cortex that guide neural connections, provide nutrients and insulating myelin, and mop up ions and neurotransmitters
Frontal lobes the portion of the cerebral cortex that lies just behind the forehead that is involved in speaking, muscle movements, and in making plans and judgments
Motor cortex the area at the back of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Parietal lobes he portion of the cerebral cortex between the frontal and occipital lobes that is deals with body sensations
(Somato)sensory cortex the area at the front of the parietal lobe that registers and processes body sensations.
Occipital lobes the portion of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain that includes the visual cortex for vision.
Visual cortex the area of the occipital lobe that receives visual information from the eyes.
Temporal lobes the portion of the cerebral cortex that lies roughly above the ears that includes the auditory cortex for hearing
Auditory cortex the area of the temporal lobe that receives auditory information from the ears.
Association areas the areas of the cerebral cortex involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
Broca’s Area an area of the left frontal lobe that controls the muscle movements involved in speech. Damage to this area impairs speaking
Wernicke’s Area an area of the left temporal lobe that is involved in language comprehension. Damage to this area impairs understanding
Angular gyrus an area of the left occipital lobe that transforms visual representation into an auditory code
Aphasia impairment of language usually caused by damage to the Broca’s Area or the Wernicke’s Area.
Neurogenesis the formation of new neurons.
Corpus callosum the large band of neural fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres to carry messages between them. If the corpus callosum is severed, the two hemispheres cannot communicate
Split brain a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain cannot communicate. This is caused by the severing of the corpus callosum.
Alien Hand Syndrome a rare neurological disorder that causes hand movement without the person being aware of what is happening or having control over the action; possible result of split brain surgery
Cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory and language).
Dual processing the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
Franz Gall invented phrenology, an ill-fated theory that claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and our character traits.
Phineas Gage 800s railroad worker who had a tamping iron shoot through his left cheek and out the top of his skull. He miraculously lived but massively damaged his frontal lobes. The once calm and rational Gage became irritable and dishonest.
Roger Sperry, Ronald Myers, and Michael Gazzaniga divided the brains of cats and monkeys with no serious ill effects. Set the stage to study split brain in people
Philip Vogel and Joseph Bogen tried to alleviate seizures in epileptic patients by severing the corpus callosum and causing “split brain” patients
Created by: margaret_05
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