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Psych Exam 2

Terms forgotten from Ch. 3, 7, 8, 9

acquisition the process of learning the association between the CS and the UCS until a CR is established
pairing (one-trial learning) in conditioned taste aversion, tendency to avoid foods that we ate prior to getting sick with nausea and vomiting
uniqueness of conditioned taste aversion pairing (one-trial learning) and timing
B.F. Skinner operant conditioning and reinforcement/punishment
shaping reinforcing behaviors that are closer and closer to the target behavior
basic processes involved in memory encoding, storage, retrieval
parallel processing processing many aspects of a stimulus or problem simultaneously
automatic processing space, time, sequence and frequency encoded automatically
effortful processing maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal
implicit memory remembering without conscious remembering
explicit memory memories that are consciously recalled, facts and experiences we know and can state (can declare them)
serial position effect our tendency to recall best the last (recency effect) and first (primacy effect) items on a list
maintenance rehearsal repeating the information that you're trying to remember over and over again
elaborative rehearsal involves thinking about the meaning of the information that you're encoding
linking link information that you're trying to encode with information you already know
self-reference effect tendency to have superior memory to information that applies to ourselves
spacing effect many short periods is better than less long periods
memory consolidation the neural storage of LTM
reconsolidation the process of LTM memories being brought to STM when actively thought about
STM holds onto information only currently using, extra process for sensory memory, working memory, limited capacity, ~30 seconds
LTM unlimited amount of information, STM can go into LTM, info goes back into STM when thinking about it, explicit and implicit memory
working memory conscious active processing of both incoming sensory information and of information retrieved from LTM
immediate memory span max number of items that can be recalled perfectly after one presentation 7 is the magic number
semantic memory memory for non-personal general info about the world (50 states, sky is blue)
recall a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier (FRQ test)
recognition a measure of memory in which the person identifies items previously learned (MCQ test)
encoding specificity principle the idea that cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it
reasons for LTM forgetting encoding failure, retrieval failure
reasons for STM forgetting storage decay (unused memories may fade overtime), displacement (when new info kicks old info out)
what is the frailest part of memory its source
source amnesia attributing the wrong source to an event we've experienced/heard/etc.
infantile amnesia forgetting things from age 0-4
how is memory formation linked to synapses When a new memory is formed, that involves some synaptic changes in the brain - new synapses may be formed between neurons, existing synapses may be modified or strengthened
what neurotransmitters play a large role in memory acetylcholine, glutamate (formation of new memories, modifying synapses), norepinephrine (formation of new memories, modifying synapses)
what is the role of stress hormones and emotion in memory Hormones released when we are stressed, excited or upset facilitate the encoding of memories. However, strong emotion can be detrimental to memory for neutral events or irrelevant details. If you block stress hormones, memories are not formed as well.
role of hippocampus in memory transfers info from STM to LTM (LTM NOT STORED IN HIPPOCAMPUS)
structures for implicit memories basal ganglia (procedural), cerebellum (classical)
structures for explicit memories amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (TEMPORAL LOBE)
retrograde amnesia loss of memory for past events (part or whole)
anterograde amnesia difficulty forming new LTM
H.M. suffered from anterograde amnesia, hippocampus removed, couldn't remember new info for longer than 30 seconds after, implicit memory still there
cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
heuristics a simple thinking strategy/mental shortcut that allows us t make judgments and solve problems efficiently
availability heuristic judge how likely an event is by how easy it is to think of examples of that event
confirmation bias tendency to seek out and pay more attention to information that confirms our beliefs
belief perseverance tendency to cling to our beliefs even when we are presented with contradictory evidence
overconfidence tend to be overconfident regarding the accuracy of our knowledge and judgments (projects take 2x as long as you think they will)
Dunning-Kruger effect unskilled overestimate their skill, skilled underestimate their skill
basic characteristics of language symbols and grammar
linguistic relativity hypothesis reciprocal relationship between thought and language. thinking influences language, language influences thinking
benefits of biligualism enhance our ability to think and reason, creativity, more cognitive flexibility, better language skills, better social skills
doublespeak aka double talk. language that is purposefully used to manipulate thinking, used by governments and companies to make things seem not so bad (ex. ethnic cleansing=genocide, detainee=prisoner of war
convergent thinking narrowing the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution
divergent thinking expanding the number of possible problem solutions; creative thinking that diverges in different directions
Created by: pdeloy
Popular Psychology sets




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