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River environments

list the processes of the hydrological cycle evapotranspiration --> condensation --> precipitation -->surface run off
transpiration definition the loss of moisture directly from rivers, lakes or seas
evaporation definition loss of moisture directly from vegetation
what is a river contained in drainage basin
parts of a drainage basin watershed, source, tributaries, confluence, main channel, mouth
watershed definition dividing line between neighbouring drainage basins, normally on a ridge of high land
source definition marks the starting point of a river. it is normally found near the watershed in mountainous areas
tributary definition smaller channel than meets the main river channel
confluence definition where a tributary joins the main river channel
mouth definiton where the river terminates at a sea or lake
describe what a drainage basin is the area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. it is defined from other basins by the watershed
what is an open system and why is a drainage basin an open system a drainage basin is an open system because material(water) both enters and leaves it
what are the inputs of a simple drainage basin system precipitation
what is precipitation any form of water- liquid or solid - falling from the sky.
what are the stores of a simple drainage basin system interception, groundwater storage
what is interception part of the rainfall that is intercepted by the earth's surface and which subsequently evaporates
what are the six transfers of a simple drainage basin surface run-off, infiltration, throughflow, percolation, groundwater flow
what is surface run-off water that is moving over the surface of the ground. its rate of flow depends on the degree of slope and other surface characteristics
what does the rate of flow of surface run-off depend on the degree of slope and other surface characteristics
give five examples of precipitation rain, snow, hail, sleet and drizzle
where is a source normally found near the watershed in mountainous areas
what is infiltration the movement of water from the surface down into soil
what is throughflow downhill movement of water through the soil
what is percolation downward vertical movement of water from the soil into groundwater storage area
what is the name given for the groundwater storage area water table
what is groundwater flow when water moves downhill through the rock of the drainage basin
what are the outputs of the simple drainage basin system river discharge, evapotranspiration
what is river discharge volume of water flowing past a particular point in the river at ny given time.
what is river discharge measured in cumecs (cubic metres per second)
what is evapotranspiration combination of the processes of transpiration and evaporation which both act together as outputs of water from the drainage basin system
how does most water reach the river through surface run-off, infiltration and groundwater flow
what is the fastest way for water to reach the river (asides from direct precipitation), and what can it cause in doing so surface run-off, flooding
two reason why water may never reach the river channel percolation means water is stored underground for many years evaporation prevents water reaching the river as it stays in the clouds
what five things does a river undergo changes in, in its long profile gradient, width, depth, discharge, load
what is the river's long profile its journey from source to mouth
what is groundwater storage water that is stored in the ground (within porous rock). the uppermost limit of groundwater is known as the water table
what are the three stages in a river's journey uppercourse, middlecourse and lowercourse
describe uppercourse in the mountains near the source
describe middlecourse as the river enters an area of low land and the valley starts to broaden out
describe lowercourse the river flows over a broad, flat floodplain into sea
what part of the river do these characteristics belong to: steep v-shaped valley narrow shallow channel high bedload interlocking spurs waterfalls gorges uppercourse
what part of the river do these characteristics belong to: open, gentle sloping valley with floodplain wider deeper channel more suspended sediment meanders river cliffs slip off slopes middlecourse
what part of the river do these characteristics belong to: open, gentle sloping valley with floodplain flat wide floodplain wide open valley very wide and very deep channel ox-bow lakes floodplains lowercourse
describe width in a river the distance from one bank to the other. the width increases down the long profile as the channel needs to have greater storage capacity for the extra water that tributaries bring
why does width increase down the long profile the channel needs greater storage capacity for the extra water that tributaries bring
describe depth average depth of the river, measured at equal intervals across it. like the width, it also increases as you move further downstream to hold the extra river discharge
describe discharge volume of water passing a measuring point or gauging station in a river at any given time. discharge will increase with distance downstream as more tributaries join the main channel
how do we measure discharge by multiplying the cross sectional area of the river by the velocity of the river
what is load the material carried by the river ranging from small clay sixed sediment to large boulders
how do we measure load in a river it is very hard to measure the size of the load in suspension so instead we concentrate on the load lying on the channel bed. this load is normally measured for size and roundness
what is the load on the channel bed called bedload
why might a small at uppercourse sometimes be able to carry a much greater amount of water and more bedload if precipitation increases in springtime, particularly due to melted snow from the mountains, the river volume will surge therefore producing a bigger force to carry large sediment
what index to we use to measure load roundness Power's Roundness index
what does power's roundness index help us do make more objective decisions on the degree of roundness or angularity of a piece of bedload
what are the six stages in the roundness index very angular, angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded, rounded, well rounded
in the uppercourse where will most erosion be directed vertically, wearing away the bed of the river
what does uppercourse erosion produce in the landscape deep v-shaped valleys
where does most erosion direct itself in lowercourse laterally, wearing away the banks
what does lowercourse erosion produce in the landscape flat broad valley floors
what are the four types of erosion abrasion, attrition, solution, hydraulic action
describe abrasion sand and stones in the river scrape the bed and banks and wear them away
describe attrition rocks and stones knock against each other, wearing each other away
describe solution water dissolves soluble minerals from the bed and banks. this helps to break them up
describe hydraulic action in a fast-flowing river water is forced into cracks in the bank. overtime it breaks up the bank
how can some soil and stones previously be carried to the river rain and gravity
how can the material around the river already be loosened by weathering
what are the four types of transportation traction, saltation, suspension, solution
describe traction rolling stones along the bed
describe saltation sand-sized particles bounce along the bed in a 'leap frog' movement
describe suspension silt and clay-sized particles are carried within the water flow
describe solution some minerals dissolve in the water
which process of transportation requires the most energy traction
which process of transportation requires the least energy solution
why do rivers transport more load in winter than summer in the wintertime the water evaporated in summer will fill the river higher through precipitation, meaning its energy and force will be increased and more load will be transported
in what four situations does deposition occur when the river enters a lake or the sea, slowing its flow when there is an area of shallow water, slowing the river flow when the river floods onto its floodplain, where it flows very slowly when the load is increased suddenly
what is an example of when load could be suddenly increased after a landslide
where do waterfalls occur in uppercourse where the long profile is steep
how are waterfalls formed when a more resistant rock (the capstone) overlies a softer rock. Specifically hydraulic action and abrasion will erode a deep plunge pool at the base of the waterfall
why does the waterfall move backwards the waterfall becomes undercut and the hard cap rock above periodically collapses, resulting in the gradual movement o fthe waterfall upstream
what does a waterfall leave behind in its path a gorge
which course of the river are meanders found in middle and lower
what are slip-off sloped and river cliffs if there is a difference in depth in the channel, water will flow to the deepest side of the river, meaning that more erosion will occur on that side, and more deposition will occur on the side that the river is avoiding. two landforms are formed through
where will the velocity be highest in a river meander on the outside bend
why does water travel quicker on a deeper channel there is less friction so the water moves faster
what are point bars the old inside bends of the meander
how does a meander become an oxbow lake in some cases the neck of the meander gets so thin through erosion that the river eventually cuts across it. deposition occurs on the old bank and the meander is sealed
what is a floodplain a flat area of valley floor
which course of the river runs through a floodplain middle and lower
how does a river turn a valley floor into a floodplain as the meanders grow outwards, they also move position downstream, meaning erosion at the outside of the river cuts into higher land at either side of the floodplain floor, creating distinctive bluff lines.
how does a levee form during a flood the water at the edge of the floodplain is barely moving and so does not have enough energy to transport large bits of bedload out at the edge. only fine sands and clays can make it there. the largest bedload pieces are deposited on the ban
what is the name of the floodplain floor beneath the levees alluvium
what five reasons make rivers attractive for settlers drinking water, irrigation, fish(food), sewage/hygiene, communications
what are the four physical causes of flooding precipitation soil and underlying rock landuse/vegetation steepness of drainage basin
four human causes of flooding deforestation urban growth river management global warming
how does precipitation cause a flood *heavier rainfall *fills air spaces in soil *surface run-off caused *flash floods
what is a flash flood during a period of drought, dry soil cannot infiltrate any precipitation, causing a flash flood
how does soil and underlying rock cause a flood *different soil types different levels of infiltration capability *porous rocks let water through
how does landuse/vegetation cause a flood *trees/plant roots intercept water through leaf/root system
how does the steepness of the drainage basin cause a flood *large basin takes water long time to reach the bottom *however steep slopes increase flood risks
how can deforestation cause a flood *lack of vegetation increases surface run-off *roots no longer hold soil structure together, increasing soil erosion and depositon *lack of space for water in channel
how can urban growth cause a flood *farmland converted to concrete *water collected in drain pipes and channelled to river *less infiltration *less throughflow *common flooding cause
how can river management cause a flood *changing river channel shape by narrowing or building a bridge can cause river capacity to reduce and increases flood risks
how can global warming increase flood risks *more water released from glaciers/ice caps *rivers must cope with more water than used to
Created by: keo788
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