Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Psychology, Unit 2

Soma Cell body
dendrites recieve messages from other cells
axon carries messages away from the cell body
myelin sheath fatty layer, protects the axon and speeds neutral transmission
terminal branches form junctions with the dendrites of other neurons
excitatory neural signaling triggers actions
inhibitory neural signaling depresses actions
neuro transmitters chemical messengers, secreted by neurons, absorbed by the next
synapse space between two neurons
acetylcholine learning, memory, muscle contraction
dopamine learning and memory, attention and emotion
endorphins natural, linked to pain control and pleasure
agonists excite neural firing, more neurotransmitters released
antagonists inhibit neural firing, less neurotransmitters released
EEG scans electrical waves of the brains surface
MEG measures magnetic fields from the brains natural electrical activity
PET Visual display of where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
CT x-ray pictures taken from multiple angles to composite a representation of a slice pof the brains structure
MRI Shows brains anatomy, usues magnetic fields and radio waves
fMRI shows blood flow and brain activity
Brainstem The central core of the brain, responsible for automatic survival functions
medulla base of the brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing
thalamus sensory control center, on top of brainstem, directs messages to the sensory recieving areas in cortex, transmits replies to cerebellum and medulla
reticular formation a nerve network that travels thorugh the brainstem into the thalamus, controls arousal
cerebellum coordinating movement output and balance, enabling nonverbal learning and memory, processing sensory input, located at rear of brainstem
limbic system located below the cerebral hemispheres, associated with emotions and drives
amygdala two neural clusters in the limbic system, linked to emotions
hypothalamus below the thalamus, helps govern endocrine system via pituitary gland, linked to emotion and reward
hippocampus located in limbic system, helps process memories and events
pons helps coordinate movement and control sleep
central nervous system refers to brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system consists of sensory and motor neurons
autonamic regualtes iternal bodily functions
somatic intentional movement of skeletal muscles
parasympathetic calming, "rest and digest"
sympathetic arousing, fight, flight, or freeze
The endocrine system chemical communication, "slow", governed by pituitary gland, hormones move through bloodstream
adrenal glands releases epinephrine and norepinephrine, energizes the body
pancreas releases insulin, regulates blood sugar
thyroid regulates metabolism, temperature
parathyroid regulates calcium
ovaries and testes sex hormones
Corpus callosum thick band of axons fibers connecting brain hemispheres
lesion brain tissue is destroyed
hemispherectomy entire hemisphere of brain can be removed, brain creates new pathways around the empty area (plasticity)
neurogenesis ability of the brain to make new neurons
hereditity the genetic transfer or characteristics from parent to offspring
monozygotic single egg splits into two, identical twins
dizygotic 2 eggs released, fraternal twins
heritability variation among individuals in a group that we can attribute to genes
epigenetics the study of enviornmental influences on gene expression
dual processing the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on seperate conscious tracks
blindsight a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it
parallel processing unconscious processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously
sequential processing conscious processing or one aspect of a problem at a time
sleep supports growth pituitary gland releases human growth hormone during slow-wave sleep
sleep- protection evolutionary reasoning, sleeping at night protected individuals from harm in the dark
sleep- recuperation sleep helps restore the immune system and repair brain tissue, gives resting neurons time to repair themselves, while weakening unused connections
sleep- restoration and rebuilding sleep consolidates our memories by replaying recent learning and strengthening neural connections
sleep feeds creative thinking dreams can inspire noteworthy, artistic and scientific acheivements
circadian rhythm the way our bodies roughly synchronize with a 24 hour day
adolescent circadian rhythm adolescents take longer to wake up in the morning, and stay awake later at night
NREM sleep non-rapid eye movement sleep
REM sleep rapid eye movement sleep, vivid dreams occur
NREM-1 stage sleep hypnagogic sensations, feels like youre falling or floating
NREM-2 stage sleep bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain wave activity, can still be awakened easily, 20 minutes
NREM-3 stage sleep brain emits large, slow delta waves, 30 minutes
Sleepwalking a childhood disorder that runs in the family, occurs during NREM-3
sleep talking disorder that rund in the family
sleep loss predictor of depression, increases appetite and eating, suppress immune cells that battle infections and cancer
insomnia persistent problems either falling or staying asleep
narcolepsy sudden attacks of overwhelming sleepiness, usually last less that 5 minutes
sleep apnea sufferers intermittently stop breathing during sleep for a few seconds at a time
Night terrors may sit up or walk around, talk incoherantly, experience double heart and breathing rates, and appear terrified, no recollection the next morning
fruedian theory of dreams dreams are an expression of unconscious wishes
manifest content what we remember we dreamed
latent content the unconscious drives and wishes
informaton-processing theory of dreams dreams may help "fix" the days experiences in our memory
physiological function dreams provide the unconscious brain with a periodic stimulation
activation-synthesis theory dreams are the brains attempt to synthesize neural activity
REM rebound tendancy for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
psychoactive drugs chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods
substance abuse disorder a disorder characterized by continued substance craving and use despite significant life distributon and/or physical risk
tolerance as the brain adjusts to the drug, more and more is required to get the same effect
addiction a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry
depressants reduce neural activity and slow body function
alcohol depressant- slowed reaction time, slurred speech
expectancy effect of alcohol expectations influence behavior, consuming alcohol can cause us to act out alcohols presumed influence
barbiturates goal: reduce anxiety
opiates depresses neural activity, temporarily lessens pain and anxiety, pupils constrict, breathing slows, person becomes lethargic
Stimulants excite neural firing, speed up body functions
caffiene stimulant, worlds most popular drug
Nicotine stimulant
cocaine stimulant, increased alertness and euphoria, depletes brains supply of dopamine, seretonin, and norepinephrine
methamphetamines accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes, reduces baseline dopamine levels overtime
ecstasy/MDMA synthetic stimulant, mild hallucinogen, euphoria and social intimacy, triggers dopamine relaease and blocks seretonin reuptake
hallucinogens distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
marijuana mild hallucinogen, amplifies senses, relaxes and may produce a euphoric high
Created by: julietrm1
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards