Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

test 2 psyc learning

QuestionAnswer
_____to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought ab by exp or practice learning
- when people learn anything some part of their brain is _____ changed to record what they have learned physically
- any kind of change in the way an organism _____ is learning behaves
learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex Classical conditioning
Russian physiologist (person who studies the workings of the body) who discovered classical conditioning through his work on digestion in dogs. - Ivan Pavlov
Observational learning - Conditioning
a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response (reflex). ex. food leads to salivation Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus. (no learning needed) Unconditioned response (UCR)
before conditioning, does not naturally produce a response (basically the conditioned stimulus) Neutral Stimulus (NS)
stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned stimulus (CS)
learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus (ringing of bell to eat and dogs start to salivate) (shoe fetish) Conditioned response (CR)
CS always presented before the UCS, but they overlap slightly delayed conditioning
- CS presented before the UCS, but the CS ends before the UCS begins trace conditioning
CS and UCS presented at the same time simultaneous conditioning
UCS precedes the CS ; worst for learning backward conditioning
the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response stimulus generalization
emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person conditioned emotional response (CER)
the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus. stimulus discrimination
the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning ex. Pair bell with food; then take food away) extinction
the rapid recovery of a CR upon reinstatement of the CS-UCS pairings; conditioning occurs much faster the second time around reconditioning
– the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred spontaneous recovery
occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus. Higher order conditioning
development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association (corn) conditioned taste aversion
the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses Operant Conditioning
Early work of E.L. Thorndike consisted of.... 1. law of exercise 2. law of effect
stimulus response connections are strengthened by practice/ repetition law of exercise
law stating that if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated law of effect
Skinner was most well known figure in research on operant conditioning
any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again reinforcement
any event or object that, when following a response, increases the likelihood of the response occurring again reinforcers
any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch primary reinforcers
any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars secondary (conditioned) reinforcers
the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus. positive reinforcement
response is strengthened but the reinforcement is not a result of the response noncontingent/ accidental reinforcement
rules determining when and how reinforcements will be delivered Schedules of reinforcement
every response is reinforced continuous reinforcement
makes more resistant to extinction partial/ intermittent reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same; fixed interval
schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event variable interval
schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same fixed ratio
schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event variable ratio
the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired more complex behavior (autism- giving m&ms) shaping
is any stimulus that provides an organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement discriminative stimulus
– (taking something away) the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus negative reinforcement
any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again Punishment
_____ developed the law of effect thorndike
______ named the learning of voluntary responses operant conditioning bc voluntary responses are what we use to operate in the world around us B.F Skinner
who developed the concept of reinforcement, the process of strengthening a response by following it with a pleasurable, rewarding consequence? skinner
a ____ reinforcer is something such as food or water that satisfies a basic, natural drive, whereas a ____ reinforcer is something that becomes reinforcing only after being paired with a primary reinforcer primary, secondary
any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again Punishment
- the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus. (spanking) Punishment by application
the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus (grounding) Punishment by removal (omission training or negative punishment)
a person who uses ____ punishment, such as spanking, can act as a model for aggressive behavior aggressive
____ of both kinds normally has only a ____ effect on behavior punishment, temporary
punishment can be made more effective by making it immediate and consistent and by pairing ___ of the ___ behavior with reinforcement of the desirable one. punishment, undesirable
learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful. Latent learning
tolmans experiment was based on... rats running a maze without reinforcement
the idea that learning could happen without reinforcement, and then later affect behavior, was not someting traditional operant conditioning could explain. latent learning
to learn anytning through observation the learner must first pay attention to the model Attention
the learner must also be able to retain the memory of what was done such as remembering the steps in preparing a dish that was first seen on the cooking show memory
Albert Bandura and the Bobo doll experiment showed children will imitate both antisocial and prosocial behaviors
– term used by social learning theorists to describe people we observe and imitate model
Created by: jhood