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Myers Module 2

Research Strategies

QuestionAnswer
Hindsight Bias the tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that one would have forseen it (the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
Critical Thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
Hypothesis a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Operational definition a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables.
Replication repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
Case study on observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
Survey a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
Population all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.
Random Sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Naturalistic Observation watching and recording the behavior of organisms in their natural environment.
Correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
Negative correlation One goes up, one goes down
Positive correlation both go up or down together
Illusory correlation the perception of a relationship where none exists.
Experiment research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
Random Assignment Assigning research participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between the participants.
Double-blind procedure neither participant nor the research assistant collecting the data knows which group is receiving treatment.
Placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone
Experimental group the group in an experiment that is exposed to the treatment
Control group the group in an experiment that contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a companion for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Independent variable the experimental factor that is manipulated; factor being studied
Dependent variable the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable.
Culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Created by: tpetrali