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Psych Law Chapter 3

criminology study of crime and criminal behavior
forensic psychology the study of clinical psychology in legal situations
correctional psychology application of basic and applied psychological science or scientifically-oriented professional practice to the justice system to enable the proper classification, treatment, and management of offenders
trauma an emotional response to a terrible event like an accident, rape, or natural disaster
threat assessment determining whether a person poses a threat of violence (they have intent and means to carry out the threat)
psychopathy a neuropsychiatric disorder marked by deficient emotional responses, lack of empathy, and poor behavioral controls, commonly resulting in persistent antisocial deviance and criminal behavior
classical school of criminology uses the idea of free will to explain that offenders choose to engage in crime and that the best way to control crime is to deter offenders and make it uncomfortable or unprofitable for them to offend
proportionality punishment should fit the crime
positivist school of criminology links criminal behavior with psychological factors in the offender. In this school of thought, criminologists believe psychiatric or personality conditions present in an individual are at the root of crime
sociological theories maintain that crime results from social or cultural forces that are external to any specific individual; exist prior to any criminal act; and emerge from social class political, ecological, or physical structures affecting large groups of people
biological theories of crime stress genetic influences, neuropsychological abnormalities, and biochemical irregularties
psychological theories emphasize that crime results form personality attributes that are uniquely possessed, or possessed to a special degree, by the potential criminal
social-psychological theories bridges gap between environmentalism of sociology and the individualism of psychological or biological theories; propose that crime is learned, but they differ from sociological and psychological theories in what is learned and how it is learned
structural explanations emphasize that dysfunctional social arrangements (e.g., inadequate schooling, economic adversity, or community disorganization) thwart people's efforts toward legitimate attainments and result in their breaking the law
subcultural explanations crime originates when various groups of people endorse cultural values that clash with the dominant, conventional rules of society
anomie feeling of normlessness that often precedes suicide and crime
concordance rate percentage of pairs of twins sharing the behavior of interest
monozygotic twins identical twins
dizygotic twins fraternal twins
MAO-A a deficiency is correlated with mild intellectual disability and behavioral problems, including aggressive and violent outbursts; condition affects males almost exclusively; coupled with childhood abuse may lead to more violence
Eysenck's PEN theory psychoticism, extroversion, and neuroticism
psychoticism a personality type that is prone to take risks, might engage in anti-social behaviors, impulsiveness, or non-conformist behavior.
extroversion characterized by sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness, and excitability
neuroticism worry about relatively insignificant matters, exaggerating their significance and feeling unable to cope with life stressors. A focus on negative aspects of a situation, rather than the positives
antisocial personality disorder a particularly challenging type of personality disorder characterised by impulsive, irresponsible and often criminal behaviour; will typically be manipulative, deceitful and reckless, and will not care for other people's feelings
executive function ability to plan and regulate behavior carefully
stimulation-seeking theory thrill seeking and disruptive behavior of the psychopath serve to increase sensory input and arousal to a more tolerable level
control theory assumes that people will behave anti-socially unless they learn, through a combination of inner controls and external constraints on behavior, not to offend
learning theory stresses how individuals directly acquire specific criminal behaviors through different forms of learning
containment theory external containment (social pressure and institutionalized rules) controls crime
operant learning how behavior is acquired and maintained by its consequences: responses are followed by rewards are strengthened, whereas responses followed by aversive events are weakened
classical conditioning learning through association
differential association reinforcement theory criminal behavior acquired through operant conditioning and modeling; person behaviors criminally when reinforcement for such behavior is more frequent than punishment
social learning theory/social cognitive theory acknowledges the importance of differential reinforcement for developing new behaviors, but assigns more importance to cognitive factors and to observational learning
vicarious learning a way of learning that allows individuals to learn from the experience of others. It is a conscious process that involves sensing, feeling, and empathizing with what people are doing and taking notes, and evaluating
primary deviance criminal's actual behavior
secondary deviance society's reaction to the offensive conduct
racial profiling the use of race or ethnicity as grounds for suspecting someone of having committed an offense
social labeling theory stigma of being branded a deviant can create a self-fulfilling prophecy
Created by: words_for_food
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