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Chapter 15

Human Development

QuestionAnswer
Chapter 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood
What years are considered middle adulthood? Age 40 to 65
Why is middle-aged considered a social construct? No specific biological or social events that marked boundaries, not all cultures recognize it, age can vary depending on person
What can cause differences in the experience of middle age? Health, gender, race/ethnicity, s SES, cohort, culture, personality, marital status, parental status, employment
What are the distinguishing features of middle age? Many life paths, multiple roles, running household, children, caring for aging parents, start new career, freedom, responsibility, control over life, making contribution, freedom and independence, height of career, new goals, new dreams, reevaluate
age related, progressive loss of the eyes’ ability to focus on nearby objects due to loss of elasticity in the lens presbyopia
nearsightedness myopia
age related, gradual loss of hearing, which accelerates after age 55, especially with regard to sound at higher frequencies presbycusis
What 6 areas do age-related visual problems mainly occur in? Near vision, dynamic vision, sensitivity to light, visual search, speed of processing visual information, visual acuity
use of energy to maintain vital functions basal metabolism
amount of air that can be drawn in with a deep breath and expelled vital capacity
What changes in sensory and motor functioning occur in middle age? Lose ability in the eyes, lose some ability to hear, less sensitivity to smell and taste, less strength and coordination, less endurance, less manual dexterity, slower response time
What changes in body structure and systems occur in middle age? Skin becomes thinner, hair becomes thinner and grayer, gain weight, lose height, less bone density, slower or more irregular heartbeat, less amount of air can be inhaled and exhaled
What factors contribute to individual differences in physical condition? Working out and eating right in earlier adulthood, use it or lose it, maintaining exercise, biology, smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and adulthood, taking vitamins, stress
cessation of menstruation and of ability to bear children menopause
period of several years during which a woman experiences physiological changes of menopause, includes 1st year after end of menstruation perimenopause or climacteric
What is menopausal transition? Beginning in mid-30s to mid 40s, production of mature ova decline, produce less estrogen, less and irregular menstruation, flow ceases
inability of a man to achieve or maintain an erect penis sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance erectile dysfunction or impotence
What reproductive changes occur in middle age for women? Drop in estrogen, hot flashes, vaginal dryness, urinary dysfunction, less intense arousal, less frequent and quicker orgasm, reproductive capacity ends
What reproductive changes occur in middle age for men? Drop in testosterone, loss of psychological arousal, less frequent erection, slower orgasm, longer recovery between ejaculation, increased risk of erectile dysfunction, some decrease in fertility
What factors can affect women's experience of menopause? Undergoing stressful change in role, relationship, responsibility, change in mental state, ethnicity, culture
What symptoms have been found to be related to menopause? Hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, painful intercourse, sleep disturbance, mood disturbance
What symptoms have not been found to be related to menopause? Urinary incontinence, cognitive disturbance, somatic symptoms, sexual dysfunction
What changes occur in male sexual functioning in middle age? Decrease in testosterone, genetic quality of sperm declines, erectile dysfunction
What changes occur in sexual activity during middle age? What can this be caused by? Can decrease or can stay about the same, change can be caused by disease, surgery, medication, monotony and relationship, preoccupation with worries, fatigue, depression, failure to make sex priority, fear of failure to attain erection, lack of partner
What physical changes generally occur during the middle years? Eyes, hearing, senses of taste/smell, strength, coordination, endurance, manual dexterity, reaction time, skin, hair, bone density, menopause, erectile dysfunction
What is the psychological impact of the decrease in physical ability? Menopause-can be a time of role change, greater independence, personal growth, some cultures supportive but others not
chronically high blood pressure hypertension
disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin, a hormone that converts sugar, starches and other fades into energy needed for daily life diabetes
What is the typical health status in middle age? Most people tend to be healthy but African-Americans tend to have the most problems
What health concerns become more prevalent in the late? Hypertension, diabetes, heart disease
Discuss behavioral, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic factors in health and morality at middle age. Nutrition, smoking, alcohol and drug use, physical activity, excessive weight gain, social relationships, stress, ethnicity, gender, SES, access to healthcare, genetics
condition in which the bones become thin and brittle as a result of rapid calcium depletion osteoporosis
diagnostic x-ray examination of the breast mammography
treatment with artificial estrogen, sometimes in combination with hormone progesterone, to relieve or prevent symptoms caused by decline in estrogen levels after menopause hormone therapy
What changes in women's health risks occur after menopause? Bone loss, osteoporosis, breast cancer
What are the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy? Benefit-relief from menopause symptoms, prevent or stop bone loss; risk-increased cardiovascular risk, breast cancer, heart attack, stroke, blood clot, increased risk of other cancers
response to physical or psychological demands stress
perceived environmental demands that may produce stress stressors
What causes, sources and effects stress in middle age? Work, money, children, responsibility, health concerns, housing, money, relationships; can make people sick, cause diseases like hypertension, heart ailment, stroke, diabetes, depression, cancer, long-term illness
How does stress affect health in middle age? Can cause short-term illness or long-term disease
How do emotions and personality affect health? Positive can mean better health, negative can mean worse health, being depressed can decrease health, hope, curiosity
What are risk factors for psychological distress and depressive symptoms? SES, race/ethnicity, education, ability to afford basic necessities, stress, social support
What are the 6 primary mental abilities? Verbal meaning, word fluency, and number, spatial orientation, inductive reasoning, perceptual speed
type of intelligence, proposed by Horn and Cattell, that is applied to novel problems in is relatively independent of educational and cultural differences fluid intelligence
type of intelligence, proposed by Horn and Cattell, involving the ability to remember and use learned information, largely dependent on education and culture crystallized intelligence
What factors affect physical and mental health at midlife? Behavioral influence, SES, health, race/ethnicity, gender, stress, emotions
What were the results of the Seattle longitudinal study? Most people show no significant reduction in abilities until after age 60, do not decline in all areas
What is the difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence? Crystallized is learned knowledge, fluid is knowledge gained independent of education and culture
How can fluid and crystallized intelligence be affected by age? They tend to increase into the late 20’s and early 30’s, fluid peaks in young adulthood, crystallized improves with age
Compare the findings of the Seattle study with those of Horn and Cattell. They both showed that intelligence can continue to increase into middle adulthood, but tend to decline in some areas after that
What cognitive gains and losses occur during middle age? Gain-crystallized intelligence, lose-fluid intelligence
in Hoyer’s terminology, progressive dedication of information processing and fluid thinking to specific knowledge systems, make a knowledge more readily accessible encapsulation
What is integrative thought? Mix logic with intuition and emotion, conflicting ideas and facts, don't accept things as face value, filtered through life experience and previous learning
What is the relationship between expertise, knowledge and intelligence? A person can learn with lots of knowledge and intelligence but expertise makes knowledge more readily available to use
Give an example of integrative thinking. A young adult and a person in middle age may interpret the same story differently, the older person may integrate metaphorical meaning
How do mature adults think differently than younger people? Expertise, integrative knowledge
What are the prerequisites for creative achievement? Creative potential, creative performance
What is the relationship between creative performance and age? Peaks in late 30s depending on field, can peek or level off in late 40’s or 50’s
What accounts for creative achievement? Deep, highly organized knowledge of a subject, interested motivation, strong emotional attachment to work, perseverance
How does creativity change with age? Increases until peaking around the late 30s, can peek even in late 40s or 50s, become more creative with experience and expertise
reducing work hours or days, gradually moving into retirement over a number of years phased retirement
employment switching from one company to another or a new line of work bridge employment
What trends occur in work and retirement into middle age? Retiring later, phased retirement, bridge employment
How can work affect cognitive functioning? jobs that require higher cognitive abilities tend to keep people sharper
in an adult, ability to use printed and written information to function in society, achieve goals and develop knowledge and potential literacy
Why might mature adults return to the classroom? Develop cognitively, improve self-esteem, keep up with world, specialized training for work, new occupation, reinterred job market, expand mind and skills, enjoy learning
What are some ways in which educational institutions can attempt to meet the needs of mature adults? Granting credit for life experience, credit for previous learning, matriculation, Saturday in night classes, independent study, child care, financial aid, free or reduced tuition courses, distance learning
Why is literacy training needed in the United States and internationally? Can contribute to society more, need basic skills, function in society, develop knowledge and potential
How are patterns of work and education changing? People are working into advanced years, retiring later, going to school longer, going to school later in life, furthering education
How does work contribute to cognitive development? The more the mind is challenged, the sharper it is likely to stay
Describe “middle age”. Social construct, developed an industrial societies, increasing lifespan led to new roles at midlife
Describes the span of middle adulthood. About age 40 to 65, but often subjective
What happens to the mind and body in middle adulthood? Both gains and losses
Describe of life for most middle aged people. Good physical, cognitive, emotional condition, heavy responsibility, multiple roles, feel competent to handle them
What is middle age the best time for? Taking stock and making decisions about remaining years
What can affect psychological changes? Aging, genetic makeup, behavior, lifestyle
What are common physical losses in middle adulthood? Loss in bone density, vital capacity, gradual, minor decline in sensory and psychomotor abilities
What can the symptoms of menopause depend upon? Attitude toward it, cultural factors, natural changes of aging
What declines sexually among men in middle adulthood? Fertility, frequency in orgasm, erectile dysfunction
What can cause erectile dysfunction? Health, lifestyle, emotional well-being
In general, what happens to sexual activity in middle-age? Gradually diminishes
Describe the health of baby boomers compared to previous generations. Possibly less healthy
Describe the health of most middle aged people. Healthy, no functional limitations
What are 4 major health problems beginning in midlife? Cancer, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes
What is the leading cause of death in midlife? Cancer
What 4 things affect present and future health the most? Diet, exercise, alcohol use, smoking
Why is low income associated with poorer health? Partly because of lack of insurance
What has happened to the racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care? Decreased but still persists
What do postmenopausal women become more subset double 2? Heart disease, bone loss, osteoporosis, breast cancer
What are ways to better the chances of not having breast cancer? Routine mammography beginning at age 40
What is the verdict on hormone therapy? Risks may outweigh benefits
When does stress occur? Body's ability to cope is not equal to demands placed on it
When is stress the greatest? Why? Middle age, related to variety of practical problems
What can happen to the immune system when placed under severe stress? Decreased functioning
What experiences of middle age can be stressful? Role change, career change, other experiences
Emotionally, what can affect health? Personality, negative emotionality, positive emotion associated with good health
What type of distress becomes more prevalent in middle-age? Psychological
What did the Seattle longitudinal study find? Several of primary mental abilities remain strong during middle age, great individual variability
What type of intelligence declines earlier: fluid intelligence or crystallized intelligence? Fluid intelligence
What has been attributed to encapsulation of fluid abilities in midlife? Advances and expertise, specialized knowledge
When does post formal thought become especially useful? Situations calling for integrative thinking
What does creative performance depend on? Personal attributes, environment all forces
How strongly is creativity related to intelligence? Not strongly related
What happens to divergent thinking and creative output in middle-age? Appears to decline
What are peak ages for cognitive output and creativity? Very bad occupation
What can losses in productivity with age be offset by? Gains in quality
What is occurring in regards to retirement? Shift away from early retirement, shift toward more flexible options
Why can improve cognitive flexibility in middle-age? Complex work
Why do many adults go to college at a nontraditional age or participate in other educational activities? Improve work-related skills and knowledge
Created by: love_fire_roses