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Chapter 6 Psych

Memory

QuestionAnswer
Memory a group of related mental processes involved in acquiring, storing, and retrieving info.
Encoding a process of transforming info into a form that can be entered into and retained by the memory system.
Storage Ability to keep information and having access to it later
Retrieval Process of recovering info stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it.
Stage Model-1st Stage- Sensory Memory -Lots of information-very brief-Attention
Stage Model-2nd Stage- Short-term Memory -Held for about 20-30 seconds-Information you are consciously thinking of
Stage Model-3rd Stage- Long-term Memory -Connection to STM-Also involved in routine tasks
Short-term Memory- Duration: *20-30 seconds-Can last longer if repeated
Maintenance rehearsal the mental or verbal repetition of info in order to maintain it beyond the usual 20-second duration of short-term memory
Short-term Memory- Capacity: -is limited. We can remember 7 items, plus or minus 2.
Short-term Memory- Chunking Increasing the amount of information that can be held in short-term memory by grouping related items together into a single unit, or chunk.-Some numbers are broken up by hyphens so that that you can remember them easily.
Elaborative Rehearsal Rehearsal that involves focusing on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it to long-term memory.** is effective because you can relate it to something you already know. You are elaborating...
Procedural Memory Category of long-term memory that includes memories of different skills, operations, and actions
Episodic Memory Category of long-term memory that includes memories of general knowledge of facts, names, and concepts.
Explicit Memory "Memory with awareness". Information taht can be consciously recollected. A.K.A= declarative memory
Implicit Memory "Memory without awareness". Information or knowledge that affects behavior or task perfomance but cannot be consciously recollected. A.K.A= non-declarative memory
Forgetting The inability to recall information that was previously available
Encoding Failure Insufficient Encoding for storage in LTM.
Encoding failure- Absent Mindness Attention is divided
Encoding failure- Prospective Memory Remembering to do something in the future.-May fail -> retrieval cue failure; post its, timers...etc.
Decay Theory New memories create memory traces.-If not used, will decay-Lacks research support
Interference Theory One memory competes or replaces another.
Retroactive Interference New memory interferes with old memory
Proactive Interference Old memory interferes with new memory
Motivated Forgetting Motivated to forget.-Because it is unpleasant/disturbing behavior.
Suppression Deliberate, conscious effort to forget.-Motivated forgetting that consciously occurs.
Repression Motivated forgetting that occurs unconsciously.-Controversial
Deja Vu A brief, but intense feeling of remembering a scene or an event that is actually being experienced for the first time.French for= "already seen".
Characteristics of Deja Vu -68% of people have had 1 or more experiences-20-24 year olds have the highest amt. (about 3/yr)-people in there early 40's have about 1/yr-happens when people are emotionally stressed/fatigue-usually happens when other people are around.
Source memory/Source monitoring Memory for when, where, and how a particualr piece of information was acquired.
Misinformation Effect A memory disortion phenomenon in which a person's existing memories can be altered if the person is exposed to misleading information.*Can distort recollection of original event by eyewitnesses and eyewitness memories
Source Confusion A memory disortion that occurs when the true source of the memory is forgotten
False Memory -Distorted or inaccurate memory that feels real.-Often accompanied by all the emotions of real memory
Schemas -Organized clusters of info about specific topics -Can be helpful-Can contribute to memory distortions
Scripts Typical sequence of actions/behaviors or an everyday event
Imagination Inflation Vividly imagining an event increases confidence that the event occurred
Retrograde Amnesia Loss of memory. Especially for episodic info; backward-acting amnesia
Memory consolidation The gradual, physical process of converting new long-term memories to stable, enduring long-term memory codes
Anterograde Amnesia Loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories; forward-acting amnesia.
Created by: italianbabe330