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Chapter 1

Psychology: The Evolution of a Science Flashcards Learn Test

nativism the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn
phrenology a now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain
introspection the subjective observation of one's own experience
psychoanalysis a therapeutic approach the focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders
humanistic psychology an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
cognitive neuroscience a field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity
cultural psychology the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members
psychology the scientific study of mind and behavior
mind our private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings
behavior observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals
philosophical empiricism the philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience
physiology the study of biological processes, especially in the human body
stimulus sensory input from the environment
reaction time the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus
consciousness a person's subjective experience of the world and the mind
structuralism the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind
functionalism the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment
natural selection Charles Darwin's theory that the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations
hysteria a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences
unconscious the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions
behaviorism an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior
response an action or physiological change elicited by stimulus
reinforcement the consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again
illusions errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality
gestalt psychology a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
cognitive psychology the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning
behavioral neuroscience an approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes
evolutionary psychology a psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection
social psychology a subfield of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior
Created by: honeymilk
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