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AP #1

Abnormal Psychology Exam 1

psychological disorder psychological disfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response
abnormal behavior actions that are unexpected and often evaluated negatively because they differ from typical or usual behavior
phobia psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation
psychopathology scientific study of psychological disorders
scientist-practitioner mental health professionals who are expectd to apply scientiic methods to their work. They must keep current in the latest research on diagnosis and treatment, they must evaluate their own methods for effectiveness, and they may generate own research...
presenting problem original complaint reported by the client to the therapist. the acual treated problem may sometimes be a modification derived from the presenting problem
clinical description details of the combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder
prevalence number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time
incidence number of new cases of a disorder apprearing during a specific period
course pattern of development and change f a disorder over time
prognosis predicted future development of a disorder over time
etiology cause or source of a disorder
exorcism religious rituals that attributes disordered behavior to possession by demons and seeks to treat the individual by driving the demons from the body
psychosocial focus not only on psychological factors but on social and cultural ones as well
moral therapy psychosocial approach in the 19th century that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments
mental hygiene movement mid 19th century effort to improve care of the mentally disordered by informing the public of their mistreatment
psychoanalysis psychoanalytic assessment and therapy, which emphasizes exploraton of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts, started by Sigmund Freud
behaviorism explanation of human behavior, including disfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology
unconscious part of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person
catharsis rapid or sudden releaase of emoional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytical therapy
psychoanalytic model complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behavior, based mainly on inferred inner forces
id in psychoanalysis, the unconscious psychical entity present at birth representing basic drives
ego in psychoanalysis, the psychical entity responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy id drives
superego in psycholoanalysis, the psychical entity representing the internalized moral standards of parents and society
intrapsychic conflicts in psychoanalysis, the struggles among the id, ego, and superego
defense mechanisms common patterns of behavorior, often adaptive coping styles when they occur in moderation, observed in response to particular situations. in psychoanalysis, these are thought to be unconscious processes origniating in the ego.
psychosocial stages of development in psychoanalysis, the sequence of phases a person passes through during development. each stage is named for the location on the body where id gratification is maximizal at that time
castration anxiety in PA, the fear in young boys that they will be mutilated genitally because of their lust for their mothers
neurosis obsolete psychodynamic term for psychological disorder thought to result from unconscious conflcts and the anxiety they cause
ego psychology .derived from PA, this theory emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders in failure of the ego to manage imulses and internal conflicts
object relations modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of how children incorporate the memories and values of people who are close and important to them
collective unconscious accumulated wisdom of a culture collected and remembered across generations, a psychodynamic concept introduced by Carl Jung
free association psychoalaytic therapy technique intented to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. the patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind witout censoring
dream analysis PA therapy method in which dream contents are examined as symbolic of id impulses and intrapsychic conflicts
psychoanalyst therapist who practices psychoanalysis after earning either an MD or a PhD degree and receiving additional specialized postdoctoral training
transference psychoanalytic concept suggestigthe clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they do to important authority figures, particularly their parents
psychodynamic psychotherapy contemporary version of PA that still emphasizes unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems
self-actualizing process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences
person-centered therapy therapy method in which the client, rather than the counselor, primarily directs the course of discussion, seeking self-discovery and self- responsibility
unconditional positive regard acceptance by the counselor of the client's feelings and actions without judgment or condemnation
behavioral model .explanation of human behavior, including disfuction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derivedfrom experimental psychology
classical conditioning fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neural stimulus). After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus
extinction learning process in which a response maintained by reinfocement in opernat conditioning or pairing in classical conditioning decreases when that reinforcement or pairing is removed, also the procedure of removing that reinforcement or pairing
introspection early, nonscientific approach to the study of psychology involving systematic attempts to report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli triggered
systematic desensitization behaviorial therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus aied with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation
behavior therapy array of therapy methods ased on the principles of behavioral and cognitive science, as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems. it considers specific behaviors rather than inferred conflicts as legitimate targets for change
reinforcement in operant conditioning, consequences for behavior that strengthen it or icrease its frequency. +rein involves the contingent delivery of a desired consequence. -rein is the contingent escape from an aversive consequence...
shaping in OC, the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that response. both desirable and undesirable behaviors may be learned in this manner
multidimensional integrative approach an approach to the study of psychopathology that hold psychological disorders as always being the products of multiple interacting casual factors
genes long DNA molecules, the basic physical units of heredity that appear as locations on chromosomes
diathesis-stress model hypothesis that both an inherited tendency and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder
vulnerability susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder
reciprocal gene-environment model hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmentl ris factors that promote the disorder
neuroscience study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, thoughts, and emotions
neuron individual nerve cell; responsible for transmitting information
synaptic cleft space between the nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next
neurotransmitters chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between the nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. their relative excess or deficiency is involved in several psychological disorders
hormone chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands
brain circuits neurotransmitter currents or neural pathways in the brain
reuptake action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft
agonist chemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its effects
antagonist in nueroscience, a chemical substance that decreases or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter
inverse agonist chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular neurotransmitter
glutamate amino acid neurotransmitter that excites many different neurons, leading to action
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) NT that reduces activity across the synapse and thus inhibits a range of behaviors and emotions, especially generalized anxiety
serotonin NT involved in processing of info and coordination of movement, as well as inhibition and restraint. it also assits in the regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviors, all of which may be involved in different psychological disorders...
norepinephrine (aka. noradrenaline) NT active in the central and peripheral nervous systems, controlling heart rate, BP, and respiration, among other functions. it may also contribute to panic attacks
dopamine NT whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploratory pleasure-seeling behaviors. overdose related to schizo and deficit related to Parkinson's disease
cognitive science field of study that examines how humans and other animals acquire, process, store, and retrieve info
learned helplessness Martin Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attributiont hat they have no control over the stress in their lives
modeling (aka. observational learning) learning through observation and imitation of te behavior of other individuals and condequences of that behavior
prepared learning an ability has been adaptive for evolution, allowing certain associations can be learned more readily than others
implicit memory condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events despite acting in response to them
flight or fight response brain circuit in animals that when stimulated cuases an immediate alarm and escape response resembling human panic
emotion pattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiological response
mood enduring period of emotionality
affect conscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time
equifinality developmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several causes
clinical assessment .systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder
diagnosis process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder
reliability degree to which a measurement is consistent (eg. over time or among different raters)
validity degree to which a technique measures what it intends to measure
standardization process of establishing specif norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions. this includes instructions for administering the measure, evaluating its findings, and comparing datas
mental status exam relatively carse prelimiary test of a client's judgment, orientation to time and place, and emotional and mental state. typiclly done during initial interview
behavioral assessment measuring, observing, and systematically evaluating (rather than inferring) the client's thoughts, feelings,and behavior in the actual problem situation or context
projective tests psychoanalytically based measures that present ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses will reveal their unconsicous conflicts. these tests are inferential and lack reliability and validity
personality inventories self-report questionnaries that assess personal traits by asking respondents to identify descriptions that apply to them
intelligence quotient (IQ) score on an intelligence test estimating a person's deviation from average test performance
neuropsychological testing assessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual's performance on behavioral tasks
falso positive assessment error in which pathology is reported test results are positive) when none is actually present
false negative assessment error in which no pathology is notes (test results are negative) when one is actually present
neuroimaging sophisticated computer aided procedures nonintrusive exams of nervou system structure and function
psychophysiological assessment measurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting psychological or emotional event such as anxiety, stress, and sexual arousal
electroencephalogram (EEG) measure of electrical activity patters in the brain, taken through electrodes placedon the scalp
idiographic strategy close and detailed investigation of an individual emphasizing what makes that person unique
nomothetic strategy indentification and examination of large groups of people with the same disorder to note similarities and develop general laws
clasification assignment of objcts or people t categories on the basis of shared characteristics
taxonomy system of naming and clssification (eg. of specimens) in science
nosology classification and naming system for medical ad psychological phenomena
nomenclature in a naming system or nosology, the actual labels or names that are applied. in psychopathology, these include mood disorders and eating disorders
classical categorical approach classification method founded on the assumption of clear-cut differences among disorders, each with a differnt known cause
dimensional approach method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather tahn on a binary, either-or, or all-or-none basis
prototypical approach system for categorizing disorders using both essential, defining characteristics and a range of variation and other charactistics
familial aggregation the extent to which the disorder would be found among the patient's relatives
comorbidy presence of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time
labeling applying a name to a phenonmenon or a pattern of behavior. may acquire negative connotations or be applied erroneously to the person rather than that person's behaviors
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) enduring, distressing emotional disorder that follows exposure to a severe helplessness- or fear-inducing threat. person experiences trauma, avoids stimuli associated with it, and develops a numbing of responsiveness and an increased arousal
acute stress disorder severe reaction immediately following a terrifying event, often including amnsia about the event, emotional numbing, and derealization. these patients later get PTSD
somatoform disorders pathological convern of individuals with the appearance of functioning of their bodies, usually in the absence of any indentifiable medical condition
dissociative disorders disorder in which individuals feel detached from themselves or their surroundings and reality, experience, and identity may disintegrate
hypochondriasis somatoform disorder involving severe anxiety over belief in having a disease process without any evident physical cause
somatization disorder SD involving extreme and long-lasting on multiple physical symptoms for which no medical cause is evident
conversion disorder physical malfunctioning, such as blindness or paralysis, suggesting neurological impairment but with no organic pathology to account for it
malingering deliberate faking of a physical or psychological disorder motivated by gain
factitious disorder .nonexistent physical or psychological disorder deliberately faked for no apparent gain except possibly sympathy and attention
pain disorder somatoform disorder featuring true pain but for which psychological factors play an important role in onset, severity, or maintenance
body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) somatoform disorder featuring a disruptive preoccupation with some imagined defect in appearance ("imagined ugliness")
derealization situation in which the individual loses a sense of the reality of the external world
depersonalization disorder dissociative disorder in which feeligs of depersonalization are so severe they dominate the client's life and prevent normal functioning
dissociative amnesia dissociative disorder featuring the inability to recall personal information, usually of a stressful or traumatic nature
generalized amnesia loss of memory of all personal information, including identity
localized or selective amnesia memory loss limited to specific times and events, particularly taumatic events
dissociative fugue diss. disorder featuring sudden, umexpected travel awat from home, along with an inability to recall the past, sometimes with assumption of a new identity
dissociative trance disorder (DTD) altered state of consciousness in which people firmly believe they are possessed by spirits, considered a disorder only where there is distress and disfunction
dissoctiative identity disorder (DID) formerly known as multiple personality disorder, a disorder in which as many as 100 personalitie or gragments of personalities coexist within one body and mind
alters shorthand term for alter egos, the different personalities or identities in dissociative identity disorder
mood disorders group of disorders involving severe and enduring disturbances in emotionally ranging from elation to severe depression
major depressive episode most common and severe experience of depression, including feelings of worthlessness, disturbances in bodily activities such as sleep, los of interest, and inability to experience pleasure, persisting at least two weeks
mania pweiod of abnormally excesive elation of euphoria, associated ith some mood disorders
hypomanic episode less severe and less disruptive version of a manic episode that is one fo the criteria for several mood disorders
mixed manic episode condition in which the individual experiences both elation and depression or anxiety at the same time.
major depressive disorder single or recurrent episode mood disorder involving one or more (separated by at least 2 months without depression) major depressive episodes
dysthymic disorder mood disorder involving persistently depressed mood, with low self esteem, withdrawal, pessimsm, or despair, present for at least 2 years, with no absence of symptoms for more than two months
double depression severe mood disorder typified by maor depressve episodes superimposed over a background of dysthymic disorder
pathological or impacted griet reaction extreme reation to the death of a loved one that involves psyychotic features, suicidal ideation, or severe loss of weight or energy that persists for more than 2 months
bipolar II disorder alternation of major depressive episodes with hypomanic episodes (not fully manic episodes)
bipolar I disorder alternation of major depressive episodes with full manic episodes
cyclothymic disorder chronic (at least 2 years) mood disorder characterized by alternating mood elevation and depression levels that are not as severe as maic or major depressive episodes
catalepsy motor movement disturbance seen in peope with some psychoses and mood disorders in which bod postures are wazy and can be "sculpted" to remain fixed for long periods
hallucinations psychotic symptoms of perceptual disturbance in which things are seen, heard, or otherwise sensed although they are not actually present
delusions psychotic symptom involving disorder of thought content and presence of strong beliefs that are misrepresentations of reality
seasonal affective disorder (SAD) mood disorder involving a cycling of episodes corresponding to the seasons of the year, typically with depression occuring during the winter
neurohormones hormones that affect the brain and are increasingly the focus of study in psychopathology
learned helplessness theory of depression
depressive cognitive triad thinking errors in depressed people negatively focued in three areas: themselves, their immediate world, andtheir future
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) biological treatment for severe, chronic depression involving the application of electrical impulses through the bain to produce seizeures. the reason for its effectiveness are unknown
cognitive therapy treatment approach that involves identifying and altering negative thinking styles related to psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety and replacing them with more positive beliefs and attitudes
interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) brief treatment approach that emphasizes resolution of interpersonal problems and stressors, such as role disputes, in marital conflict or forming relationships in marriage or a new job. works to treat depression
maintenance treatment combination of continued psychosocial treatment, psychosocial treatment, medication, or both desiged to revent relapse following therapy
suicidal attempts efforts to kill oneself
suicidal ideation serious thoughts about committing suicide
psychological autopsy postmortem (after death) psychological profile of a suicide victim constructed from interviews with people who knew the person before death
Created by: daniellaxd
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