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Psychology Exam 1-2

Preface and Chapter 1 & 2

Case Study Useful when it's something unique. Focus on a single interesting case in detail.
Clinical Psychologist Deal/Fix a problem.
Psychotherapy area of work: Clinical Neuropsychology
Psychological Testing to identify people with some sort of problem (diagnose). Note: Make money by testing!
Control Condition Like a control group, but administered to the same participants who receive the experimental condition.
Correlation Coefficient Ranges from 1.0 to -1.0 (magnitude is important, not the sign). Measures strength.
Positive Correlation as one goes UP, then the other goes UP.
Negative Correlation as one goes DOWN, the other goes UP.
Counseling Psychologist helping people with issues that we all face (normal issues). Career counseling. Vocational testing.
Data (plural) datum (singular). Individual facts, statistics, or items of information.
Debriefing an interview after a study to ensure that the participant has no negative reactions as a result of participation and understand why the study was conducted.
Dependent Variable the aspect of a situation that is measured while the independent variable is changed.
Double-Blind Design the participant is "blind" to the predictions of the study, and the experimenter is "blind" to the condition assigned to the participant.
Effect the difference is the dependent variable that is due to the changes in the independent variable. Ex: Redbull improves test performance.
Experimental Condition a part of a study in which the participant receives the complete procedure that defines the experiment.
Experimental Group a group that receives the complete procedure that defines the experiment.
Experimental Expectancy Effects effects that occur when an investigator's expectations lead him/her (consciously/unconsciously) to treat participants in a way that encourages them to produce the expected results.
Functionalism Why the brain does what it does. Helps us adapt to different environments. WHY, NOT WHAT!! WILLIAM JAMES.
Who set up the first psychological laboratory in the U.S.? William James
William James FUNCTIONALISM. heavily influenced by Charles Darwin. Studied how consciousness helped an individual survive/adapt to environments. Animal observations are a template of human behavior. Focused on practical issues (education).
Gestalt Psychology MAX WERTHEIMER. Focused on consciousness and principles of perceptual organization (group things together). The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Carl Rogers HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY. invented client-center therapy (serves as a mirror of client).
Abraham Maslow HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY. self-actualization (reaching your potential/goals).
Hypothesis a tentative idea that might explain a set of observations.
Independent Variable the aspect of a situation that is intentionally varied while another aspect is measured.
Informed Consent requirement that a potential participant in a study be told what he/she will be asked to do and be advised of possible risks and benefits of the study before agreeing to take part.
Introspection Looking within (not objectively verifiable). Technique of noticing mental process as,or immediately after, they occur.
Levels of Analysis The Person (nature of belief, desires and feelings). The Brain (structure, properties of the organ). The Group (events, environment; love, competition, cooperation).
Mental Processes Stuff your brain does. What the brain does when a person stores, recalls, or uses information, or has specific feelings.
Operational Definition definition of a variable that specifies how it is measure or manipulated.
Population the entire set of relevant people or animals.
Prediction an expectation about specific events that should occur in particular circumstances if the theory/hypothesis is correct.
Psychiatrist M.D. - can practice medicine (issue prescriptions). Focus mental disorders, can prescribe drugs, but they cannot administer tests nor interpret psychological research).
Psychodynamic Theory SIGMUND FREUD (crazy man!) Believed that the mind has separate components: consciousness/unconsciousness. Most behavior is influenced by the unconsciousness (sexual/aggressive desires).
Psychology the science of mental processes and behavior.
Random Assignment Technique of assigning participants randomly to the experimental and the control groups, so that no biases can sneak into the composition of the groups.
Reliability Data are reliable if the same results are obtained when the measurements are repeated.
Replication Collecting the same observations or measurements and finding the same results as were found previously.
Response Bias Tendency to respond in a particular way regardless of respondents' actual knowledge or beliefs.
Sample a group that is drawn from a larger population and measure or observed.
Sampling Bias occurs when the participants/items are not chosen at random, but instead are chosen so that one attribute is over or under represented.
Scientific Method 1. Specify a PROBLEM 2. Systematic OBSERVATION 3. Form a HYPOTHESIS 4. TEST the HYPOTHESIS 5. Formulate a THEORY 6. TEST the THEORY
Structuralism WHAT WE DO, NOT WHY!! WILHELM WUNDT (father of Modern Psychology). Identifies consciousness = being aware! Focused on identifying the "building blocks" of consciousness.
Building Blocks of Consciousness 1. Sensations - info that comes from the 5 senses 2. Feelings - traditionally known as emotions (love, fear, etc.)
Survey set of questions, typically about beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or activities.
Theory an interlocking set of concepts or principles that explains a set of observations.
Unconscious not consciously aware and not able to be brought to consciousness at will.
Validity a measure is valid if it does in fact measure what it is supposed to measure.
Face Validity The test is said to have face validity if it "looks like" it is going to measure what it is supposed to measure.
Content Validity AKA: Logical Validity. he estimate of how much a measure represents every single element of a construct. Ex: an educational test with strong content validity will represent the subjects actually taught to students, rather than asking unrelated questions.
Criterion Validity assesses whether a test reflects a certain set of abilities.
Construct Validity Construct validity defines how a well a test or experiment measures up to its claims.
Variable aspect of a situation that can/vary change; a characteristic of a substance, quantity or entity that is measurable.
Action Potential the shifting change in charge that moves down the axon. When the neuron actually "fires".
Adaptation Characteristic that increases "fitness" for an environment.
All-or-None Law Characteristics that increases "fitness" for an environment.
Amygdala important in basic emotions ... especially in things like "fear" and "anger". Inner feelings.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Automatic/Self-Regulating. Controls the smooth muscles of the body (primarily). Controls some glands .. Ex: digestion and circulation.
Axon the sending end of the neuron. the long cable extending from the cell body.
Basal Ganglia subcortical (below the cortex) structures that play a role in planning and producing movement.
Brain Circuit a set of neurons that affect one another.
Brainstem "wake-up" call - keeps you alert, awake, and alive!! Injuries to the brainstem can result in brain-dead and death.
Cell Body the middle part of a cell body (including a neuron), which contains the nucleus.
Cell Membrane the skin of a cell.
Central Nervous System (CNS) The spinal cord and the brain.
Cerebellum A large structure at the base of the brain that is concerned in part with physical coordination, estimating time, and paying attention.
Cerebral Cortex Gray-Matter!! The convoluted pinkish-gray surface of the brain. Most mental processes takes place here!
Cerebral Hemisphere a left or right half-brain, roughly half a sphere in shape.
Corpus Callosum the huge band of nerve fibers that connect the 2 halves of the brain. Contains between 250-300 million nerve fibers.
Dendrite the twiggy part of a neuron. Receives messages from the axons of other neurons.
Forebrain the cortex, thalamus, limbic system, and basal ganglia.
Frontal Lobe front of the brain, purposeful thinking is done here! Functions: planning, memory search, motor control, and reasoning.
Gyrus Bulge between sulci in the cerebral cortex.
Hindbrain the medulla, pons, cerebellum, and parts of reticular formation.
Hippocampus allows new information to be store in memory (helps you remember). Ex: H.M. - removed hippocampus and could no longer remember anything new he learned.
Hypothalamus under the Thalamus. Thermostat. Controls the regulatory system .. regulates body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Plays central role in controlling eating/drinking.
Interneuron neuron that is connected to other neurons, not to sense organs or muscles.
Lesion a region of impaired tissue.
Limbic System set of brain areas including the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and other areas. Areas thought to be involved in fighting, fleeing, feeding, and sex.
Lobes the 4 major parts of each cerebral hemisphere -- occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal.
Medulla the lowest part of the lower brainstem, which plays a central role in automatic control of breathing, swallowing, and blood circulation.
Meninges the covering of the brain.
Midbrain brainstem structures that connect the forebraiin and hindbrain, including parts of the reticular formation.
Motor Neuron neuron that sends signals to muscles to control movement.
Motor Strip the gyrus, located immediately in front of the central gyrus. Controls fine movemets and is organized by body parts. Also called: Primary Motor Cortex.
Myelin fatty substance that helps impulses travel down the axon more efficiently.
Neuromodulator a chemical that alters the effect of neurotransmitter.
Neuron a cell that receives signals from other neurons/sense organs, processes these signals, and sends the signals to other neurons, muscles, or bodily organs.
Neurotransmitter a chemical that sends signals from the terminal buttons on one neuron to the dendrites or cell body of another.
Occipital Lobe brain lobe at the back of the head. Concerned entirely with different aspect of vision.
Parasympathetic Nervous System part of the ANS that is "next to" the sympathetic system and that tends to counteract its effects. Decreases arousal (awareness/alert) ... settles you down!
Parietal Lobe Brain lobe at the top, center/rear of the head. Involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control. Ex: driving ... where you parked ... locating sirens, etc.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and the Skeletal System. Links the brain to the organs of the body.
Pituitary Gland Master Gland!! Regulates other glands. Controlled by the brain, primarily via connections from the Hypothalamus.
Pons Bridge between the brainstem and the cerebellum that plays a role in functions ranging from sleep to control of facial muscles.
Receptor site on the dendrite/cell body where a messenger molecule attaches itself. Receives only one type of Neurotransmitter or Neuromodulator.
Reflex an automatic response to an event.
Resting Potential the negative charge within a neuron when it is at rest.
Reticular Formation 2 part structure in the brainstem. Ascending: keeping a person awake/alert. Descending: important in producing autonomic nervous system reactions.
Reuptake process by which surplus neurotransmitter is reabsorbed back into the sending neurons so that the neurons can effectively fire again.
Sensory Neuron Neuron that responds to input from sense organs.
Skeletal System Consists of nerves that are attached to striated muscles and bones.
Somatosensory Strip the gyrus, located immediately behind the central sulcus. Registers sensation on the body and is organized by body parts.
Spinal Cord The flexible rope of nerves that runs inside the backbone, or spinal column. Initiates reflexes (primarily). Involuntary movement.
Split Brain Patient a person whose Corpus Callosum has been severed for medical reasons, so that neuronal impulses no longer pass from one hemisphere to the other.
Stroke result of the failure of blood to reach part of the brain, causing neurons in that area to die.
Subcortical Structures Part of the brain that contains gray matter. Located under the Cerebral Cortex.
Sulcus crease in the Cerebral Cortex.
Synaptic Cleft gap between the axon of one neuron and the membrane of another, across which communication occurs.
Temporal Lobes Brain lobe under the temples, in front of the ears, where sideburns begin to grow down. Functions: visual hearing and hearing.
Terminal Lobes structure at the end of axons that, when the neuron is triggered, releases chemicals into the space between neurons.
Thalamus subcortical (underneath the cortex) region that receives inputs from sensory and motor systems and plays a crucial role in attention. Often though of as a switching center.
Aristotle came up with the importance of the HEART!
Descartes came up with the distinguishment of MIND and BODY!
Thomas Willis (apoplexy/strokes) .. reasonably accurate ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN!
Phrenology FRANZ JOSEPH GALL. Convincingly demonstrated that the brain is the seat of ALL mental activity. The brain is what's in charge, not the heart! Different parts of the brain are responsible for different things.
Franz Joseph Gall PHRENOLOGY
Behaviorism JOHN WATSON & B.F. SKINNER. The mind cannot be observed. Science should study only the observable. Rats in a maze.
Humanistic Psychology CARL ROGERS and ABRAHAM MASLOW
Academic Psychologists Teach classes. Conduct research. Main types: clinical, cognitive, developmental, social, physiological
Applied Psychologists Do research to solve problem in practical areas. Main types: developmental, human factors, industrial/organizational, personality, social, sport, school (education)
Naturalistic Observation simply watching people/animals. Allows one to see patterns in the real world.
Correlation Research studies where the relationships b/w 2 or more variable are measured but not manipulated. Ex: shoe size and height
What controls the cell? nucleus
Synapse where they meet.
Vesicles release either the neurotransmitter/neuromodulators into the gaps.
Sympathetic Nervous System Belongs to the ANS. Helps cope with emergencies. Fight or Flight. Increases arousal (alertness/awareness).
Sensory-Somatic Nervous System input/output connections. Skeletal System. Triggers muscles/glands. Ex: thumbs-up, muscle-arm,etc. Eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin.
Neuroendocrine System signals your body that it's time to start puberty. In charge of hormones.
HPA Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis... made up of: hypothalamic, pituitary gland, adrenal gland. Involved in helping fight-off infections. Works together with the immune system.
Created by: kserrano005
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