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Ch 1/2 Physics

Concepts/Fundamentals of Radiologic Science

What is matter? anything that occupies space and has mass
All matter is compose of what? atoms
How is matter measured? kilograms
What is mass? the quantity of matter in a physical object
How is mass measured? kilograms
What is energy? the ability to do work
How is energy measured? joules
What is potential energy? stored energy
What is kinetic energy? energy in motion
What is electrical energy? results from the movement of electrons
What is the law of conservation of matter? matter cannot be created or destroyed
What is the law of conservation of energy? energy cannot be created or destroyed
When electrical energy produces electro-magnetic energy, it is then coverted into what? chemical energy
What is ionization? radiation that is capable of removing an orbital electron from it's shell of an atom with which it interacts
What is the two kinds of radiation? natural and man-made
What is the similarity of both radiations? both are ionizing radiation
What is the largest natural radiation source? radon
What is the largest source of man-made radiation? diagnostic x-rays
What are some natural forms of radiation? cosmic, terrestrial, deposited radionuclides
What are some man-made forms of radiation? industry, nuclear medicine, medicine
How did William Roentgen discover x-rays? use of a crookes tube, accidentally, Nov.8, 1895
What was the glass plate covered with when it started to glow? barium platinocyanide
Who was the 1st person x-rayed and when? Bertha Roentgen (Roentgen'swife), 1896
Who was the 1st person to demonstrate the intensifying screen? Michael Pupin, 1896
Who invented the flouroscope and when? Thomas Edison, 1898
When was it first realized that radiation causes biologic changes? 1898
When was Roentgen awarded the nobel prize? 1901
When was the 1st recorded fatality due to radiation,and who was it? 1904, Clarence Daily (Thomas Edison's asst)
When was the coolidge hot filament discovered? 1913
When was the Potter-Bucky introduced? 1921
What does ALARA stands for? as low as reasonably achievable
What are the basic concepts of radiation protection? filtration, collimation, intensifying screens, gonadal shielding, protective barriers
What are the properties of x-rays? highly penetrating invisible form of electromagnetic radiation, electrically neutral, not affected by other fields, poly-energetic, releases small amounts of heat when passing through matter, travels in straight lines and at the speed of light(3x10^8)
What is a photon? the smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic energy; a small bundle of energy
What is another name for photon? quantum; a quantum of electromagnetic energy
Photons are constantly changing in variations called what? sine waves
What are the properties of a photon? amplitude, frequency, wavelength, velocity
What is amplitude? one half the range from crest to valley over which the sine wave varies
What is frequency(f)? number of wavelengths that pass a point of observation per second; the rate of the rise and fall; cycles per second
How is frequency measured? hertz (Hz)
What is wavelength? the distance from one crest to another, one valley to another, or from any point on the sine wave to the next corresponding point
Velocity travels at what speed? 3x10^8(speed of light)
What is the only property that is constant? velocity
What is the relation between wavelength and frequency? inversely proportional: as wavelength increases, energy decreases
What is the relation between energy and frequency? directly proportional
What is the difference between x-rays and gamma rays? their origin
How is visible light identified? by wavelength
How is radio-frequency identified? by frequency of transmission
How are x-rays identified? by energy
What is the smallest particle of a compound? molecule
What is the smallest particle of an element? atom
Created by: sunshineb