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Intro to Psych

Basic Psychology terms

Psychology Psychology is the study of human behavior and mental processes
Behavior Anything that people can observe or measure
Mental Processes/ Cognitive Activities the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses
Goals of Psychology 1. Describe 2. Explain 3. Predict 4. Control (NOT CURE)
Psychodynamic/ Psychoanalytic Perspective (Unconscious mind) Behavior is shaped by unconscious motivations Unresolved conflicts from childhood Recommended treatment: therapy in which a qualified professional makes you aware of your unresolved conflicts.
Behavior/ Learning Perspective (Rooted in experiences) We lack control of ourselves We merely respond to environment Behaviors based off of likely consequences (reward and punishment) Recommended: change the rewards and punishments
Humanist Perspective Rooted in mind and needs We are who we choose to be All humans are good Basic needs must be met to reach one’s unique potential Recommended treatment: help people achieve their unmet needs and provide acceptance + encouragement.
Biological/ Evolutionary Perspective Rooted In biology Neuroscience (chemicals, structures, brain damage) Evolutionary (genetic problems) Recommended treatment: medications
Sociocultural Perspective view of society Behavior is shaped by the cultural expectations of our setting Changes in our social setting can because drastic changes in us. Recommended treatment: place yourself in a culture that encourages positive actions.
Cognitive Perspective How you think Internal perception (or maps) of the world) Focuses on mental processes and thoughts Recommended treatment: replace an individual’s negative thoughts about a situation or their capabilities with a more positive outlook.
Nature measure of how much a trait’s variation is explained by genetic factors
Nurture Stresses importance of environment and learning
Twin Studies Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins. They aim to reveal the importance of environmental and genetic influences for traits, phenotypes, and disorders.
Isolation a defense mechanism that relies on keeping unwelcome thoughts and feelings from forming associative links with other thoughts and feelings, with the result that the unwelcome thought is rarely activated.
Basic Research Seeking knowledge for knowledge’s sake
Applied Research Studying issues to apply findings to solve problems
Quantitative Research emphasize measurement, numbers, statistics - can generate a large quantity quickly
Qualitative Research emphasize observation and interpreting peoples’ behavior - can take years
Survey Method Researcher gathers data by asking people directly (survey) Strength: can rapidly survey large populations of people, computer can aid in sorting out Weaknesses: information may not be accurate, questions may be worded weirdly
Examples of Survey Method questionnaires, interviews, polls, census data
Response Bias Answering questions in a certain way that you think is more favorable. Can happen because of how questions are phrased.
Correlation relationships between 2 variables. Does not mean Causation.
Causation one variable directly impacts another variable.
Sampling Choosing participants for a study
Population whole group you want to study
Sample part of the target population you actually asked
Random Sample individuals are selected by chance
Stratified Sample subgroups are represented at the same ratio in which they occur in the population
Representative Sample sample that accurately represents the diversity within a target population
Experimental Method Only method that can prove/disprove cause and effect Carefully observe participants to determine how the treatment influence behavior Weaknesses: Experiment may not reflect real life,all variables may not be accounted for
Placebo fake treatment given to control group for the effectiveness of tested treatment.
Hawthorne Effect People act differently in study if they know they are being studied.
Independent Variable The variable that is added to experiment
Dependent Variable The variable that is being affected by the independent variable
Confounding Variable a third variable that influences both the independent and dependent variables
Experimental Group Group that receives the treatment in the experiment
Control Group the group that does not receive the new treatment being studied
Observational Research Observe behavior
Case Study in-depth investigation of an individual or small group [singular]
Cross-Sectional Method Instead of studying the same group over years, select sample of people from different groups/ages
Longitudinal method Select group of participants and study them over long period of time
Naturalistic Method Observe people in their natural setting or habits
Laboratory Method Setting that is set-up to test desired behavior
Ethics moral principles that govern a person's behavior or the conducting of an activity.
Validity Testing what you actually set out to test (accuracy of the data)
Reliability When research can be replicated, it is consistent (consistency of data)
Created by: SonikaT
Popular Psychology sets




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