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Psychology Methods

IB Psychology - Methods

Experimentation The preferred method for scientific investigation because it is the only method able to establish a cause and effect relationship. A test under controlled conditions to examine validity of hypothesis where one variable is manipulated to measure effects.
Research Question All methods of investigation must start with a research question.
Hypothesis A proposition set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some phenomena.
Independent Variable Factor that may affect the behavior. IV is manipulated by researcher, usually by comparing two groups of participants.
Dependent Variable May be affected by IV; usually numerically measured.
Confounding Variables Factors apart from IV that may affect DV (limitations of a study)
Participant Variable Where there are differences between the participants in the experimental and control groups, other than the IV.
Independent Group Design Different participants are used to test different parts of the IV. May cause PV.
Repeated Measure Design Experimental and control groups consists of the same group of participants. Counterbalancing: tested in the conditions of IV in different orders.
Matched Pairs Design Two different groups of participants in the experimental and control groups, but they are matched pair-wise on things like gender, age, etc. (can lead to experimenter sampling bias).
Stratified Sample Population is divided into "layers" or "strata" before the sample is selected.
Opportunity Sample Involves studying a sample that is easily available (most widely used)
Validity Does it measure what is is supposed to measure?
Internal Validity Whether the results of study were really due to variables the researcher suggested were tested by methodology.
External Validity Whether the results can be generalized if conducted in different environments or using different participants.
Reliability How consistently a method measures over time when repeated.
(for ANIMALS) researchers should: 1. Avoid or minimize stress and suffering of all living animals. 2. Always consider the possibility of other options to animal research. 3. Be as economical as possible in the numbers of animals tested.
Ethical guidelines for ANIMALS *The conditions under which animals are kept. *The researchers conducting the experiment (skills/experience). *The research allowed (approved or not)
Ethical guidelines for HUMANS 1. Have consent 2. Avoid deception 3. Conduct debriefing 4. Allow for withdrawals from investigations 5. Keep confidentiality 6. Protection of participants (leave like they came in) 7. Observational research may not be very ethical
Created by: kingjdred
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