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# AP Psych Module 6-8

Term | Definition |
---|---|

correlation (6) | a measure of the extent to which two variables change together, and thus of how well either variable, predicts the other |

correlation coefficient (6) | a statistical index of the relationship between two variables (from -1 to +1) |

negative correlation (6) | two sets of scores relate inversely, one set going up while the other goes down |

scatterplot (6) | a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables; the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables; the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation |

positive correlation (6) | a correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other; both variables move in the same direction |

illusory correlation (6) | the perception of a relationship where none exists |

experiment (6) | a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process |

experimental group (6) | in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable |

control group (6) | in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment |

random assignment (6) | assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between different groups |

double-blind procedure (6) | an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies. |

placebo effect (6) | experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent |

independent variable (6) | `the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied |

confounding variable (6) | a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment |

validity (6) | the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to |

dependent variable (6) | the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable |

descriptive statistics (7) | numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups; includes measures of central tendency and measures of variation |

histogram (7) | a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution |

mode (7) | the most frequently occurring score in a distribution |

mean (7) | the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores |

median (7) | the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it |

range (7) | the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution |

standard deviation (7) | a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score |

skewed distribution (7) | a representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value |

normal curve (normal distribution) (7) | asymmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (about 68% fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes |

inferential statistics (7) | numerical data that allows one to generalize- to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population |

principles of a reliable generalization (7) | 1. representative samples are better than biased samples, 2. less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable, 3. more cases are better than fewer |

stasitical significance (7) | a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance |

culture (8) | the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next |

informed consent (8) | a basic ethical principle developed by APA (a principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate) |

protect from physical harm (8) | a basic ethical principle developed by APA, protect from... |

confidentiality (8) | a basic ethical principle developed by APA (keep information about an individual private) |

debriefing (8) | a basic ethical principle developed by APA (the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants |

longitudinal study (8) | a study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time |

cross-sectional study (8) | a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another |

ex-post facto study (8) | a type of design that contrasts groups of people who differ on some variable of interest to the researcher |