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# u2 vocab

Question | Answer |
---|---|

hindsight bias | no one could've forseen the outcome |

critical thinking | thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions |

theory | explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations |

hypothesis | testable prediction, implied by a theory |

operational definition | carefully worded statement of exact procedures used in a research study |

replication | repeating the obsence of a research study, w/ diff situations |

case study | one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of recalling universal principles |

naturalistic observation | observing+recording behavior in a natural occasion w/o manipulating or controlling |

survery | technique for obtaining behaviors of a group, by question |

sampling bias | flawed sampling bias that produces unrepresentative sample |

population | all in a group being studied |

random sample | sample that represents a population, equal chance for inclusion |

correlation | measure of the extent to which variables change together, how well they predict one another |

correlation coefficent | statistical index of the relationship between two variables |

scatterplot | graph w/ clustered dots, represents the value of two variables slope suggests the direction of the relationship |

illusory correlation | perception of a relationship where none exists |

experiment | research or manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior |

experimental group | group exposed to treatment/ change |

control group | not exposed to the treatment- comparison |

random assignment | assigning people based on chance, minimizing pre-existing differences between groups |

double-blind procedure | both patients and staff are ignorant with who recieved the placebo |

placebo | effect experimental results caused by expectations alone |

independent variable | factor that is manipulated |

dependent variable | outcome factor, may change in response to manipulations of independent variable |

confounding variable | might also produce an effect outcome factor |

validity | extent to which a test or experiment measures what/ predicts what it is supposed to |

descriptive statistics | numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups |

histogram | bar graph depicting a frequency distribution |

mode | most frequent |

median | middle score |

mean | average |

skewed distribution | representation of scores that lack symmetry around their avg. values |

range | diff. between highest and lowest scores |

standard deviation | computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score |

normal curve | symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of data, 68% |

inferential statistics | numerical data that allow one to generalize/ infer probability |

statistical significance | statistical statement of how likely it is an obtained result occured by chance |

culture | enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions |

informed consent | ethical principle that participants are aware of |

debriefing | post-experimental explanation of a study, including it's purpose and deceptions |