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u2 vocab

hindsight bias no one could've forseen the outcome
critical thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions
theory explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations
hypothesis testable prediction, implied by a theory
operational definition carefully worded statement of exact procedures used in a research study
replication repeating the obsence of a research study, w/ diff situations
case study one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of recalling universal principles
naturalistic observation observing+recording behavior in a natural occasion w/o manipulating or controlling
survery technique for obtaining behaviors of a group, by question
sampling bias flawed sampling bias that produces unrepresentative sample
population all in a group being studied
random sample sample that represents a population, equal chance for inclusion
correlation measure of the extent to which variables change together, how well they predict one another
correlation coefficent statistical index of the relationship between two variables
scatterplot graph w/ clustered dots, represents the value of two variables slope suggests the direction of the relationship
illusory correlation perception of a relationship where none exists
experiment research or manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior
experimental group group exposed to treatment/ change
control group not exposed to the treatment- comparison
random assignment assigning people based on chance, minimizing pre-existing differences between groups
double-blind procedure both patients and staff are ignorant with who recieved the placebo
placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone
independent variable factor that is manipulated
dependent variable outcome factor, may change in response to manipulations of independent variable
confounding variable might also produce an effect outcome factor
validity extent to which a test or experiment measures what/ predicts what it is supposed to
descriptive statistics numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups
histogram bar graph depicting a frequency distribution
mode most frequent
median middle score
mean average
skewed distribution representation of scores that lack symmetry around their avg. values
range diff. between highest and lowest scores
standard deviation computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
normal curve symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of data, 68%
inferential statistics numerical data that allow one to generalize/ infer probability
statistical significance statistical statement of how likely it is an obtained result occured by chance
culture enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions
informed consent ethical principle that participants are aware of
debriefing post-experimental explanation of a study, including it's purpose and deceptions
Created by: _emilyyyoung_
Popular Psychology sets




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