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AP Psych: Unit 2

Parts of a Neuron Dendrite, Axon, Soma, Myelin Sheath, Terminal Buttons, Synapse
Dendrite Direct messages
Axon Announce messages
Soma Cell body
Myelin Sheath Fatty covering that speeds neural impulses
Terminal Buttons End of axon, contain neurotransmitters
Synapse Space between neurons
How does a neuron fire? Resting Potential (Polarized), Threshold, Action Potential, All or none response, Re-polarization, Refractory Period, Hyper-polarity, Resting State again.
Resting State (Polarized) Slightly negative charge; POTASSIUM ions INSIDE; SODIUM ions OUTSIDE.
Threshold Reach the threshold when enough neurotransmitters reach the dendrites
Action Potential Neuron Fires; the change in electric potential that propagates along the axon of a neuron during the transmission of a nerve impulse or the contraction of a muscle.
All or None Response The neuron will fire or it will not fire.
Types of Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter; Reuptake Process; Excitatory; Inhibitory; Acetylcholine (ACH); Dopamine; Serotonin; Endorphins; Norepinephrine; Gaba; Glutamate
Neurotransmitter Chemical that transmits signals from a neuron across a synapse
Reuptake Process Recycling of neurons; the process by which the presynaptic neuron reabsorbs its released neurotransmitter after the neurotransmitter has done its job by binding to the postsynaptic neuron.
Excitatory Excite the next cell to fire
Inhibitory Stop from firing
Acetylcholine (ACH) Deals with motor movement and memory; too much could cause you to spasm; too little and you could experience paralysis; lack of ACH has been linked to Alzheimer's disease.
Dopamine Deals with motor movement, alertness, and pleasure; lack of dopamine has been linked to Parkinson's disease; too much has been linked to schizophrenia (hallucinations and delusions).
Serotonin Involved in mood control, appetite, and sleep: link of serotonin has been linked to clinical depression.
Endorphins Involved in pain control; ADDICTIVE DRUGS (e.x. heroine, coke, etc.)
Norepinephrine Adrenaline; depression
Gaba Inhibitory, calming, seizures/sleep problems
Glutamate Excites you; linked to migraines/seizures, cognitive tasks
Drugs can be... Agonists or Antagonists
Agonists Make neurons fire
Antagonists Stop neural firing
Types of Neurons Efferent (Motor); Interneurons; Afferent (Sensory)
Efferent (Motor) Neurons Exit the brain from the motor cortex to our body for movement
Interneurons Send info to the brain or efferent neurons
Afferent (Sensory) Neurons At the brain
S.A.M.E and E.E. Sensory, Afferent, Motor, Efferent. And Efferent Exit
Myelin Sheath Speeds up neural impulses. When it degenerates, it leads to Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
Created by: johnmkim2005
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