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PTAS 201

PTAS 201 Study Guide Exam 1

5 ways heat can be transferred Conduction, convection, evaporation, conversion and radiation
Physiological effects of heat Increased blood flow, increased metabolism, increased stretch in connective tissue, decrease pain and muscle spasm
Hotpack temperature and length of treatment 158-167' for 20-30 minutes
Paraffin temperature and length of treatment 113-122' for 15-20 minutes
Types of paraffin application Dip and wrap, immersion, dip and immerse, brush technique
Fluidotherapy and treatment time 100-118' for 20 minutes
Physiologica effects of cold Initially decreased blood flow and then increased blood flow, decreased metabolism, increase resistance to movement, increased pain threshold, decreased spasticity
Types of cold application Ice massage, cold packs, iced bath, vapocoolant spray
Archimedes Principle When a body is entirely or partially immersed in a fluid at rest, it may experience an upward thrust equal to the weight of fluid displaced. Upward movement is assisted; downward motion is resisted
Buoyancy The force experienced as an upward thrust on the body and is in the opposite direction as the force of gravity. Buoyancy will assist movement as the limb is moved toward the surface of the water.
Specific Gravity The ratio of a given volume of a substance to the mass of the same volume of water
Hydrostatic Pressure The pressure exerted by the water on the immersed body. It is proportional the depth of the immersion
Pascal's Law Fluid pressure is exerted equally on all surfaces at rest a given depth.
Surface Tension Resistance is greater at the surface since water molecules at the surface have a greater tendency to hold together
Cohesion The tendency of water molecules to adhere to one another.
Viscosity Friction that occurs between molecules of a liquid and causes resistance to the liquid flow.
Physiological effects of water Cleansing, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, psychological effects
Piezoelectric Effect The phenomenon of developing an electric charge on certain crystals by applying mechanical pressure
Reverse Piezoelectric Effect The production of mechanical energy by imposing electrical charges across a crystal
ERA Effective radiating area; the size of the radiating surface of the tissue within the sound head specified by the manufacturer
Duty Cycle The duty cycle is the percentage or ratio of the pulse duration (on-time) to the entire pulse period (on-time + off-time).
Beam Nonuniformity Ratio The relationship between the spatial peak intensity and the spatial average intensity.
Cavitation Formation, growth and pulsation of gas or vapor filled bubbles
Acoustic streaming Steady, circular flow of ultrasound induced by ultrasound
Clinical uses of ultrasound Increase length of tissue, decrease pain, help with wound healing, may help with tendon injury and resorption of calcium deposits, bone healing, may help with carpal tunnel
Methods of US application Direct contact, immersion, fluid pillow
Thermal US intensity and time 1.5 - 2.0 W/Cm2 for 5-10 minutes
Non-thermal intensity and time .5 - 1.0 W/Cm2 for 5-10 minutes with 20% duty cycle
Phonophoresis The introduction of substances into the body by ultrasonic energy.
Methods to assess edema Infection, circumferential measurement, ROM muscle testing, neurological assessment, tissue quality assessment, photograph
Intermittent compression dosage UE: 30-60 mm HgLE: 40-80 mm Hg
Intermittent compression treatment ration and time 3:1 ration for 2-3 hours
Types of traction skin, skeletal, manual, continuous, sustained, intermittent mechanical, positional, gravity assisted, traction by inversion
Inverse square law Radiation intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source to the target. The closer you get, the stronger the radiation as it is the square of the distance
Cosine law The intensity of radiation varies as the cosine of the angle incidence. The greater the angle at which the radiation strikes the skin, the less the intensity
Infrared Type of light that penetrates 1-3 mm of skin and is considered superficial heat
Physiological effects of ultraviolet Erythema, pigmentation, metabolic (Vitamin D), bactericidal, increased steroid production, skin hyperplasia
Erythema effects Suberythmal dose, minimal erythemal dose, second degree erythemal dose and third degree erythemal dose
Diathermy Heat by conversion of high frequency electromagnetic energy; used for deep heating
Inductive diathermy Patient is in the electromagnetic field but not part of the circuit
Capactive diathermy Patient is part of the circuit and an electromagnetic field is created between the two coils
Pulsed diathermy Non thermal diathermy used for wound healing
LASER Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
Effects of laser ATP production, collagen formation, inflammation reduction, reduced bacteria, vasodilation
Created by: woblevalenski



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