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Apologia PhyScience

Module 6

What is Earth's outermost layer of rock? Earth's crust
What are small, solid fragments of rock and other materials that are carried and deposited by wind, water, or ice (Ex. sand, mud or gravel)? Sediment
What is formed when chemical reactions cement sediments together? Sedimentary Rock
What is formed when molten rock solidifies? Igneous Rock
Igneous or sedimentary rock that has been transformed as a result of great pressure and temperature is known as what? Metamorphic Rock
What is rock that behaves like something between a liquid and a solid? Plastic Rock
What is the vibration of the earth that results either from volcanic activity or rock masses suddenly moving along a fault? Earthquake
What is the boundary between two sections of rock that can move relative to one another? Fault
What is the point where an earthquake begins? Focus
What is the point on the surface of the earth directly above an earthquake's focus? Epicenter
What are the five sections that make up the earth? atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust, mantle, and core
Which layers of the earth can we directly observe? atmosphere, hydrosphere, and crust
What two regions of the earth does the Moho discontinuity separate? crust from the mantle
What does the Gutenberg discontinuity separate? mantle from the core
What does the Lehmann discontinuity separate? inner core from the outer core
What is the main thing scientist observe in order to learn about the makeup of the earth's interior? Scientists observe seismic waves, which are usually generated by earthquakes.
Which is solid, the inner core or the outer core? Why? The inner core is solid because of pressure freezing.
Where is the magnetic field of the earth generated? in the earth's core
What causes the magnetic field of the earth? a large amount of electrical flow in the core
What theory says that the motion of the core is due to temperature differences in the core and the rotation of the earth? dynamo theory
What theory states that the electrical current in the core started as a consequence of how the earth formed and is decreasing over time? rapid-decay theory
Which theory is more scientifically valid: rapid-decay theory or dynamo theory? Why? The rapid decay theory has been used to accurately predict the magnetic fields of other planets. The dynamo theory fails miserably at this.
Why is a catastrophe like the worldwide flood in Noah's time important if the rapid-decay theory is true? A global catastrophe like the flood is required to be consistent with data indicating the magnetic field of the earth has reversed several times.
What two reasons make otherwise good scientists ignore the more scientifically valid rapid-decay theory? 1) it requires a catastrophe like the Flood 2) it indicates an earth 10,000 years old or younger
Why would life cease to exist without the earth's magnetic field? If the magnetic field didn't exist, cosmic rays from the sun would hit the earth, killing all life on the earth.
What are the "plates" in plate tectonics? large islands of the earth's lithosphere floating around on the plastic rock of the asthenosphere
What is Pangaea? a hypothetical supercontinent that might have existed in the past
Why do otherwise good scientists ignore the plate tectonics theory despite the evidence that exists for it? It is usually linked to the idea of an earth that is billions of years old
What causes earthquakes? the motion of rock masses along a fault or by volcanic activity
What are the four kinds of mountains? volcanic, domed, fault-block and folded
Created by: thamesfamily