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Week 1 LifeSpan GPSY

human development the multidisciplinary study of how people change and how they remain the same over time.
nature-nurture issue the degree to which genetic or hereditary influences( nature) and experiential or environmental influences (nurture) determine the kind of person you are.
continuity-discontinuity issue whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity)
universal versus context-specific development issue whether there is just one path of development or several paths
biopsychosocial framework a useful way to organize the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces on human development
neuroscience the study of the brain and nervous system, especially in terms of brain-behavior relationships
theory an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development.
psychodynamic theories theories proposing that development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages
psychosocial theory Erikson's proposal that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands
epigenetic principle in Erikson's theory, the idea that each psychosocial strength has its own period of particular importance
reinforcement a consequence that increases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
punishment a consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
imitation or observational learning learning that occurs by simply watching how others behave
self- efficacy people's beliefs about their own abilities and talents.
Erikson's Theory proposed that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands. The life cycle has 8 stages.
Stage: Basic trust vs mistrust Birth to 1 year, to develop a sense that the world is a safe, "good" place
Stage: autonomy vs shame and doubt 1 to 3 years, to realize that one is an independent person who can make decisions and doubt
Stage: initiative vs. guilt 3-6 years, to develop the ability to try new things and to handle failure
stage: industry vs. inferiority 6 years to adolescence, to learn basic skills and to work with others
stage: identity vs. identity confusion adolescence: to develop a lasting, integrated sense of self
stage: intimacy vs isolation young adulthood: to commit to another in a loving relationship
stage: generativity vs stagnation middle adulthood: to contribute to younger people through childrearing, child care, or other productive work
stage: integrity vs despair late adulthood: to view one's life as satisfactory and worth living
B. F. Skinner 1904-1990. pioneered the study of behaviorism, in which the consequences of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated in the future.
Albert Bandura 1925- . based his social cognitive theory on how people look to others for information about appropriate behavior. "cognitive" because he believes people actively try to understand what goes on in their world; "social" others show info about the world
Jean Piaget 1896-1980. Swiss psychologist who was the first to make a systematic study of the acquisition of understanding in children
Piaget's four stages: Sensorimotor Birth to 18–24 months old Object permanence
Piaget's four stages: Preoperational 2 to 7 years old Symbolic thought
Piaget's four stages: Concrete operational 7 to 11 years old Operational thought
Piaget's four stages: Formal operational Adolescence to adulthood Abstract concepts
information-processing theory a theory proposing that human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software
Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934. one of the first theorists to emphasize the influence of children's sociocultural context on their thinking. because all societies want children to acquire essential cultural values and skills, a child's development must use this backdrop.
ecological theory a theory based on the idea that human development is inseparable from the environmental contexts in which a person develop- all aspects of development are interconnected: no aspect can be isolated from others.
microsystem the people and objects in an individual's immediate environment
Urie Bronfenbrenner 1917-2005. proposed that the developing person is embedded in a series of complex and interactive systems
microsystems the people and objects in an individuals immediate environment
mesosystem provides connections across microsystems
exosystem the social settings that a person may not experience firsthand but that still influence development
macrosystem the cultures and subcultures in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded
competence a persons abilities
environmental press the demands put on an individual by the environment
life-span perspective the view that human development is multiply determined and cannot be understood within the scope of a single framework
selective optimization with compensation model the model in which three processes (selection, optimization, and compensation) form a system of behavioral action that generates and regulates development and aging
Paul Baltes 1939-2006. he and his colleagues propose four features that are central to the life span perspective: Multidirectionality, plasticity, historical context, multiple causation.
life course perspective the ways in which various generations experience the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical contexts.
_________ organized knowledge to provide testable explanations of human behaviors and the ways in which they change over time. Theories
The _____ theory proposes that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands. psychosocial
According to social learning theory, people learn from reinforcements, from punishments, and through________. imitation or observational learning
Piaget's theory and Vygotskys theory are examples of the ________perspective cognitive developmental
According to Bronfenbrenner, development occurs in the context of the ________, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. microsystem
According to the ______ perspective, human development is the multidirectional and plastic. life-span
systematic observation watching people and carefully recording what they do or say
naturalistic observation a technique in which people are observed as they behave spontaneously in some real-life situation
structured observation the researcher creates a setting that is likely to elicit the behavior of interest
self-reports people's answers to questions about the topic of interest
physiological measures provides a more direct measure of underlying behavior; like brain imaging.
reliability the extent to which a measure provides a consistent index of a characteristic
validity extent to which a measure actually assesses what researchers think it assesses
populations broad groups of people that are of interest to researchers
sample a subset of the population
correlational study an investigation that looks at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world
correlation coefficient an expression of the strength and direction of a relation between two variables
experiment a systematic way of manipulating the key factor or factors that the investigator thinks causes a particular behavior
independent variable the factor being manipulated
dependent variable the behavior being observed
qualitative research a method that involves gaining in-depth understanding of human behavior and what governs it
longitudinal study a research design in which the same individuals are observed or tested repeatedly at different points in their lives
cross-sectional study a study in which developmental differences are identified by testing people of different ages
cohort effects problems with cross sectional designs in which differences between age groups (cohorts) may result as easily from environment events as from developmental processes
sequential design a developmental research design based on cross sectional and longitudinal designs
In ______, people are observed as they behave spontaneously in real life setting naturalistic observation
a _____ is a group of individuals thought to represent some larger population of interest sample
The ____ variable is measured in an experiment to evaluate the impact of the variable that was manipulated. dependent
Problems of longitudinal studies include the length of time to complete the work, loss of research participants over time, and ___. influence of repeated testing on a persons performance
Human development researchers must submit their plans for research to a review panel that determines whether the research ____ preserves the rights of research participants.
chromosomes threadlike structures in the nuclei of cells that contain genetic materials
autosomes the first 22 pairs of chromosomes
sex chromosomes the 23 rd pair of chromosomes, which determines the sex of the child
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the molecule that composes one chromosome, making it the biochemical basis of heredity
gene a group of compounds that provides a specific set of biochemical instructions
genotype the complete set of genes that makes up a person's heredity
phenotype physical, behavioral, and psychological features that result from the interaction between an individual's genes and the enviroment
alleles variations of genes
homozygous alleles in a pair of chromosomes that are the same
heterozygous alleles in a pair of chromosomes that differ from each other
dominant the allele whose chemical instructions are followed
recessive the allele whose instructions are ignored in the presence of a dominant allele
polygenic inheritance phenotypes are the result of the combined activity of many separate genes
monozygotic twins the result of a single fertilized egg splitting to form two new individuals; also called identical twins
dizygotic twins the result of two separate eggs fertilized by two sperm; also called fraternal twins
niche picking the process of deliberately seeking environments that are compatible with one's genetic makeup
nonshared environmental influences forces within a family that make siblings different from one another
The first 22 pairs of chromosomes are called _____. autosomes
____ reflects the combined activity of a number of distinct genes polygenic inheritance
Individuals with ____ have an extra 21st chromosome Down Syndrome
Nonshared environmental influences tend to make siblings ________> different from one another.
prenatal development the many changes that turn a fertilized egg into a newborn human
zygote the fertilized egg
germ disc small cluster of cells near the center of the zygote that eventually develop into a baby
placenta a structure through which nutrients and wastes are exchanged between the pregnant woman and the developing child
implantation the zygote burrows into the uterine wall and establishes connections with a woman's blood vessels
embryo the name for the zygote after it is completely implanted in the uterine wall
amnion the inner sac in which the developing child rests
amniotic fluid the fluid that surrounds the fetus
umbilical cord the structure containing veins and arteries that connects the developing child to the placenta
period of the fetus the longest period of prenatal development, extending from the 9th until the 38th week after conception
age of viability the age, typically 22-28 weeks after conception, at which a fetus can survive if born because most of its bodily systems function adequately.
The period of the zygote ends ____> 2 weeks after conception (when the zygote is completely in the wall of the uterus)
Body structures and internal organs are created during the period of the ____. embryo
____ is called the age of viability because this is when most body systems function well enough to support life. between 22 and 28 weeks
In the last few months of prenatal development, the fetus has regular periods of activity and _____which are the first signs of fetal behavior the senses work,
teratogen an agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder a disorder affecting babies whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while they were pregnant
ultrasound a prenatal diagnostic technique that uses sound waves to generate an image of the fetus
amniocentesis a prenatal diagnostic technique that uses a syringe to withdraw a sample of amniotic fluid through the prenant woman's abdomen
chorionic villus sampling a prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from part of the placenta
fetal medicine a field of medicine concerned with treating prenatal problems before birth.
General risk factors in pregnancy include a woman's nutrition, ______, and her age. prolonged stress
____ are some of the most dangerous teratogens because a pregnant woman is often unaware of their presence environmental hazards
during the period of the zygote, exposure to a teratogen typically results in______. spontaneous abortion of the fertilized egg
two techniques used to determine whether a fetus has a hereditary disorder are amniocentesis and _____. CVS
hypoxia a birth complication in which umbilical blood flow is disrupted and the infant does not receive adequate oxygen
preterm babies born before the 36th week after conception
low birth weight newborns who weigh less than 2500 grams 5.5 pounds
very low birth weight newborns who weigh less than 3.3 pounds
extremely low birth weight newborns who weigh less than 2.2 pounds
infant mortality rate the percentage of infants who die before their first birthday
In the third stage of labor and delivery, the _____ is delivered placenta
Mothers of young babies who are irritable, have low feelings of self worth, and are apathetic are suffering from _____. postpartum depression
When the supply of oxygen to the fetus is disrupted because the umbilical cord is squeezed shut, ____ results hypoxia
in vitro fertilization the process by which sperm and an egg are mixed in a petri dish to create a zygote, which is then placed in a womans uterus
eugenics the effort to improve the human species by letting only people whose characteristics are valued by a society mate and pass along their genes
Created by: mcr71852
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