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The book ch 1

What is clinical research a structured process of investigating facts and theroies exploring connections
Clinical Research needs to be both ______ & ______ Empirical and Critical
Clinical Research results must be: Observable and documented and examined for their validity
Scientific Paradigms have been described as: looking at the world that define the problems that can be addressed and the reange of legitimate evidence that can contribute to solutions
Outcomes management: is the link between: clinical management decisions, treatmetn decisions and measured documentation of effectiveness.
Outcomes Research refers to : the study of success of interention in clinical practice, with a focus on the end results of pt care in terms of disabilit and survival.
Ecoconomic indicators are: traditional outcomes, interpreted within the context of cost effectiveness or cost-benefit ratio; that is what the relative cost in terms of success of OC
Biomedical model focuses on: a linear relationship between pathology and resulting impairments
Disablement model has provided a framework for assessing: the effect of acute an chronic condition by emphasizing functional consequences and social role.
International Classification of Functional, Disability and Health (ICF) is an internation and multidiciplinar efort to: to provide a common language for hte classification and consequences of health conditions
What does PICO stand for? Patients, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome
A background question refers to: general knowledge about a disorder o r intervention, often relating to etiology, pathophysiology, or prognosis.
A foreground question relates to: relates to specific information that will guide management of the pt, typically addressing diagnosis or intervention.
Sources of knowledge: from most reliable to least Scientific Method, Deductive and Inducive Reasoning, Trial and Error, Authority, then tradition
Tradition offers: a common foundation for communication and interaction within a society or profession
Authority: when you turn to specialized sources for answers or questions
Trial and Error: method of data gathering, attempts one solution then evaluates its effects, keep trying until u get it right
Deductive Reasoning: characterized b the acceptance of general proposition, or premis, and subsequent inferences that can be drawn in a specific case. ex: all living things must die, man is a living thing = therefore, all men must die...
Inductive reasoning: reflect the reverse type of logic, developing generalizations from specific observations. It begins with experience and results in conclusion or generalizations that are probably true
which is the most rigorous process for acquiring new knowledge incorporatin elements of deduction and induction in a systematic and controlled analysis of phenomena? Scientific Method
Scientific Approach defined as: systematic, empirical, controlled and critical examination of hypothetical propositions about the associations among natural phenomena.
Quantitative RS: involves measurement of Outcomes using numerical data under standardized conditions. May be obtained using formal instruments which address physical or physiological parameteres.
Qualitative RS concerned with a deep understanding of phenomenon through narrative description, which typically is obtained under less structured condtions. Measurements based on open-ended questions, interview, observations, summarizes sclaes and subject data.
Basic RS: is done to obtain empirical data that can be used to develop, refine, or test theory. Directed toward the acquisitionof new knowledge for its own sake, motivated by intellectual curiosity.
Applied RS: Directed toward solvin immediate practical problems with functional applications and testin the theories that direct practice. Usually carried out under actual practice condition on subjects who represent the group to whic results will b applied
Translational RS: refers to the application of basic scientific findign to clinically relevant issues, and simultaneously, the gteneration of scientific question based on clinical dilemmas.
Which Research is known as from "bench to bedside" or"bedside to bench and back to bedside"? Translational----> basically laboratory-based findings to clincally important problems.
Experimental RS: refers to investigations where hte researcher manipulates and controls on or more variables and observes the resultant variation in other variables.... Purpose is cause and effect relationships
Nonexperimental RS: refers to investigations that are genrally more descriptive or exploratory in nature and that do not exhibit direct control over hte sutdied variables.
Observaional RS: reflects the idea that phenomena are observed rather than manipulated (nonexperimental).
Name the different types of RS Quantitative RS, Qualitative RS, Basic RS, Applied RS, Translational RS, Experimental RS, Nonexperimental RS, and Observational RS
Experimental Designs: provide a basis for comparing two or more conditions for the purpose of determining cause and effect relationships
What is considered the "Gold Standard" of experimental designs? Randomized Control Trial
Randomized Control Trial (RCT) = The Gold Standard, involves the controlled comparison of experimetnal intervention and a placebo.
Quasi-experimental Studies: the degree of control is limited by a variety of factors, but interpretable results can still be obtained.
Exploratroy RS: a researcher examine a phenomenon of interest and explores its dimension, incliding how it relates to other factors
Epidemiology: researchers examin association to describe and predict risks for cetain conditons using cohort and case-control studies.
Cohort study: An observational study design in which a specific group is followed over time. Subjects are classified according to whether they do or do not hav a particular risk factor or exposure and followed to determin disease outcomes.
Case-Control Study: A desing in analytic epidemiolog in which the investigator selects subjects on teh basis ot their having or not havin a particular disease and then determines their previous exposure.
Correlational research: a descriptive RS approach that explores teh relationship among variables with out active manipulation of variables by the researcher
Correlation The tenancy for variation in one variable to be related to variation in a second variable; those statistical procedures used to assess the degree of covariation between two variables.
Methodological studies use _______ ________ to demonstrate reliability and validity of measuring instruments. correlational methods
Historical Research: reconstructs the past, on the basis of archives or other records, to generate questions or suggest relationships of historical interest to a discipline.
Descriptive RS: the researcher attmpts to describe a group of individuals on a set of variables, to document their characteristics. involves questionnaire, interviews, or direct observation.
Developmental RS: is intended to investigate patterns of growth and change over time within selected segments of a population, or it may chronicle the natual history of disease or disability.
Normative Studies: focus on establishing normal values for specific variables, to serve as guidelines for diagnosis and treatment planning.
Systematice reviews: present a comprehnsive analysis of the full range of literature on a particular topic, typically an intervention , diagnositc test, or prognostic factors.
Meta-analysis: a process of statistically combing the findings from several studies to obtain a summary analysis.
Name the 5 Steps of hte Research Process step 1: Id the RS questionStep 2:Design the studyStep 3: MethodsStep 4: Data AnalysisStep 5: Communication
Created by: NicoleB



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