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Chapter 11

Human Development

Chapter 11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence
developmental transition between childhood and adulthood entailing major physical, cognitive and psychosocial changes adolescence
process by which a person attains sexual maturity and ability to reproduce puberty
What are some similarities and differences among adolescents in various parts of the world? Similar-teens become less dependent on parents, seek freedom; difference-some girls go to school and some do not because of culture, some girls’ virginity is protected and some are not
Identify risky behavior patterns common during adolescence. Accidents, homicide, suicide, alcohol, tobacco, drugs, not using seat belt, drinking, weapons, sex
What is adolescence? A time of physical, cognitive, social, emotional and psychosocial maturation
When does adolescence begin and end? About age 11 to 19 or 20
What opportunities and risks do adolescences have? Opportunity-cognitive and social competence, autonomy, self-esteem, intimacy; risk-accident, homicide, suicide, drugs, alcohol, tobacco, no seatbelt, weapons, sex
maturation of adrenal glands adrenarche
maturation of testes or ovaries gonadarche
What 2 stages does puberty take place in? adrenarche, gonadarche
What is dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)? Adrenal glands, help grow pubic, armpit, facial hair, helps body growth, oilier, develop body odor
organs directly related to reproduction, which is large and mature during adolescence primary sex characteristics
physiological sciences sexual maturation, such as breast development and growth of body hair, that do not involve sex organs secondary sex characteristics
sharp increase in height and weight that perceived sexual maturity adolescent growth spurt
boys 1st ejaculation spermarche
girls 1st menstruation menarche
trend that can be seen only by observing several generations, such as the trend toward earlier attainment of adult height and sexual maturity, which began a century ago in some countries secular trend
involuntary ejaculation of semen while sleep nocturnal emission or wet dream
a monthly shedding of tissue from the lining of the womb menstruation
How does puberty begin? With the maturing of primary and secondary sex characteristics, girls-breast tissue and pubic hair, boys-enlargement of testes
How can its timing and length vary? Can occur for 3 to 4 years but it can last longer or shorter, timing can be similar to that of parents
Describe typical pubertal changes in boys and girls. Girls-breast, pubic hair, body growth, menstruation, oil and sweat glands; boys-growth of testes, pubic hair, body growth, penis, change in voice, ejaculation, facial and underarm hair, oil and sweat glands
Identify factors that affect psychological reaction to puberty changes. How adolescence and others interpretation accompanying changes, such as peers
What physical changes do adolescences experience? Hair growth, voice and skin change, muscular development, growth spurt
How do these changes affect them psychologically? Can be positive or negative depending on how perceived, environment raised, peers
brain network sensitive to social and emotional stimuli such as peer influenced socioemotional network
brain network that regulates responses to stimuli cognitive control network
What 2 brain networks affect risk taking? Socioemotional network, cognitive control network
What are 2 major changes in the adolescent brain? Increase in the white matter in the frontal lobes, pruning of unused dendritic connections resulting reduction of gray matter and increases brain’s efficiency
Identify immature features of the adolescent brain. Socioemotional network, cognitive control network, feelings override reason, under development of frontal cortical systems
How can immaturity affect behavior? Emotional outbursts, risky behavior
What brain development occurs during adolescence? Socioemotional network, cognitive control network, increase in white matter continues and frontal lobes, pruning of unused and dendritic brain development in adolescence affect behavior
hormones that is the gauge for when the brain is ready to sleep melatonin
Summarize the status of adolescent health. Most consider themselves healthy however have many health complaints, can be more healthy
Explain the importance of physical activity. Improve strength and endurance, healthier bones and muscles, weight control, reduce anxiety, increased self-esteem, increased school grades, increased well-being
Tell why adolescence often get too little sleep. Need to do homework, want to talk or text friends, surf the web, want to act grown up, biological clock wants to stay up later but they have to get up early
descriptive and evaluated beliefs about one's appearance body image
eating disorder characterized by self starvation anorexia nervosa
eating disorder in which a person regularly eats huge quantities of food and then purges the body by laxatives, induced vomiting, fasting or excessive exercise bulimia nervosa
binging without subsequent fasting, exercise or vomiting binge eating disorder
Identify typical dietary deficiencies of adolescence. Calcium, zinc, iron
Discuss risk factors, effects, treatment and prognosis for obesity. Poorer health, less able to do daily activities, health issues, depression, use behavioral modification techniques, change diet, exercise, can lose weight
Identify risk factors, effects, treatment and prognosis for anorexia. Life-threatening, distorted body image, underweight, treatment is to gain weight, cognitive behavioral therapy, parents control eating patterns, can recover (have do) or can be deadly
Identify risk factors, effects, treatment and prognosis for bulimia. Not overweight, obsessed about shape, low self-esteem, overwhelmed by shame, self-contempt, depression, treatment to get patients to eat normally, cognitive behavioral therapy, 30 to 50% recovery
repeated, harmful use of a substance, usually alcohol or other drugs substance abuse
addiction (physical, psychological or both) to a harmful substance substance dependence
Summarize recent trends in substance use among adolescents. Half of adolescents try illicit drugs before leaving high school, drug use was high in the 70s, fell at its lowest in 1991, has increased from that
Discuss risk factors and influences connected with the use of drugs, specifically alcohol, marijuana and tobacco. Risk addiction, substance abuse, substance dependence, adolescence are influenced by peers and sometimes family
Tell why early initiation into substance use is dangerous. The earlier in adolescence starts using drugs, the harder it the drugs they are likely to use and the more they are likely to get addicted
What factors affect gender differences in adolescent depression? Biological changes with puberty, while the way girls are socialized, girls greater vulnerability to stress and social relationships
What are the 3 leading causes of death among adolescents? Vehicle accidents, firearms, suicide
What are the risk factors for teenage suicide? Mental illness, perpetrators or victims of violence, school/academic/behavioral problems, childhood maltreatment, problem in relationships, think poorly of self, hopeless, poor impulse control, low tolerance for stress, need friend, family history
What are some common health problems in adolescence? Physical activity, sleep, eating disorders, nutrition, drug abuse, depression, death in adolescence
How can common health problems be prevented? With counseling, hospitalization, exercise, more sleep, not taking illicit drugs, drug therapy for depression
Piaget's final status cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think abstractly formal operations
ability, believed by Piaget to accompany the state of formal operations, to develop, consider and test hypotheses hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Explain the difference between formal operational and concrete operational thinking as exemplified by the pendulum problem. The mind is able to abstractly think, pendulum problem-instead of guess and check, can formulate a plan to test the pendulum
Identify factors influencing adolescence development of formal reasoning. Brain maturation, expanding environmental opportunities
Evaluate the weaknesses of Piaget’s theory of formal operations. Does not consider cognitive advance, information processing capacity, accumulation of knowledge, expertise in specific fields, metacognition, not all adults can think abstractly
Evaluate the strengths of Piaget's theory of formal operations. Explains how children gain in abstract thinking
What are the 2 measurable changes in adolescent cognition according to information processing researchers? Structural change, functional change
changes in adolescence that include changes in working memory capacity and increasing the amount of knowledge stored in long-term memory structural changes
What 3 types of information can be stored in long-term memory? Declarative, procedural, conceptual
acquired factual knowledge stored in long-term memory, “knowing that” declarative knowledge
acquired skills stored in long-term memory, “knowing how to” procedural knowledge
acquired interpretive understanding stored in long-term memory, “knowing why” conceptual knowledge
changes in adolescence that include the process for obtaining, handling, retaining information, such as learning, remembering, reasoning functional change
changes in adolescence that include a continued increase in processing speed, further development of executive function such as selective attention, decision-making, inhibitory control of impulse responses, management working memory functional change
the ability to understand another person's point of view and level of knowledge and to speak accordingly social perspective-taking
Name 2 major types of changes in adolescence information-processing capabilities and give examples of each. Structural change-more working memory and information stored in long-term memory; functional change-increase in processing speed, development of more executive function
Identify characteristics of adolescences’ language development that reflect cognitive advances. Can use abstract words such as love, terms such as however and otherwise, social perspective taking
Explain the uses of pubilect. Strength in group identity, shut out adults, inventing new “teenage words”
How do adolescence thinking and use of language differ from younger children's? Develop abstract thinking, hypothetical deductive reasoning, structural change, functional change, language development, social perspective taking
1st level of Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning in which control is external and rules are obeyed in order to gain rewards or avoid punishment or out of self interest pre-conventional morality
2nd level of Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning in which standards of authority figures are internalized conventional morality or morality of conventional role conformity
3rd level of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning in which people follow it internally held moral principles that can decide among conflicting roles standards post-conventional morality or morality of autonomous moral principles
What are Kohlberg 3 levels of moral development? Preconventional morality, conventional morality, postconventional morality
What are Kohlberg 6 stages of moral reasoning? 1-orientation toward punishment/obedience, 2-instrumental purpose /exchange, 3-maintaining mutual relations/approval, 4-social concern/conscience, 5-morality of individual rights/democratically accepted law, 6-morality of universal ethical principles
What influences how rapidly children and adolescents progress through Kohlberg's levels of moral reasoning? Parents, peers, culture, close friends, being perceived as a leader
How can Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning be affected by emotion and socialization? Higher cognitive development does not necessarily mean higher moral development, moral activity can be motivated by emotion such as sympathy, guilt and distress, internalization of purse social norms
How can Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning be affected by parent and peer influences? They can affect how much and how quickly a person develops moral reasoning
How can Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning be affected by cross-cultural validity? Some people in other countries do not reach the same stages as Western-based countries, does not necessarily mean less moral development
Explain the difference between Gilligan's and Kohlberg standards of moral reasoning and discuss gender affects. Gilligan said that Kohlberg standards were more important to men than women, and men care about justice, women care about caring for others
Discuss individual differences in pro-social behavior, such as volunteering. Purse social behavior is more prevalent in girls than boys, and pathetic, girl’s parents emphasize social responsibility, community service or volunteering can increase through social activity
On what basis do adolescences make moral judgments? With morality, follow rules to get rewarded/avoid punishment, can follow rules based on standards of authority figures that are internalized, or people follow internally held principles and decide among conflicting moral standards
What can influence school achievement? Student motivation, self efficacy, SES, related family characteristics, gender, parenting styles, ethnicity, peer influence, school
students who believe they can master tasks and regulate their own learning self-efficacy
What can influence gender differences in school achievement? Home influences, school influences, neighborhood influences, women's and men's roles, cultural influences
Explain how schools in various cultures motivate students to learn. With duty, submission to authority, participation in family and community
Assess the influences of personal qualities, SES, gender, ethnicity, parents and peers on academic achievement. 1-affects motivation, 2-higher can mean better grades, 3-girls tend to do better on English and the language, boys tend to do better on math and science, 4-parenting style does not matter in certain cultures, 5-can affect motivation with encouragement
Give examples of educational practices that can help high school students succeed. Safe orderly environment, culture, extracurricular activities, respectful/encouraging teachers, adolescence make rules, meaningful curriculum, different types of high schools
personal involvement in schooling, work, family and other activity active engagement
What are trends in high school completion? black and hispanic more likely to drop out, low income are 6 times more likely to drop out, gap narrowing
What are the causes and effects of dropping out? Cause-ineffective schooling, low teacher expectation, differential treatment, less teacher support, irrelevance of curriculum; effect-unemployed, low income, on welfare, involved with drugs, crime, delinquency, and poorer health
What is importance of active engagement in schooling? More likely to obtain post secondary education, have jobs, be consistently employed
Discuss influences on educational and vocational aspirations and planning. Individual ability and personality, education, SES, ethnic background, school counselors, life experiences, societal values
Weigh the value of part-time work for high school students. prepare for real world, develop real-world skills/work ethic, sense of responsibility/independence/self-confidence, appreciate value of work; distract from long-term educational/occupational goals, exposure to alcohol, drugs, sex, delinquent behavior
What influences affect adolescences’ school success and their educational and vocational planning and preparation? Self motivation, self-efficacy, SES, family, gender, parenting style, peer influence, high school; personality, education, background, school counselors, life experience, societal argues, school can deter students
What is adolescence? Transition from childhood to adulthood
When does adolescence begin and end? About age 11 until 19 or 20
What opportunities and risks does it entail? Physical, cognitive, psychosocial growth; drinking alcohol, drug abuse, sexual and gang activity, use of firearms
What happens to risky behavior patterns throughout adolescence? Tend to increase, but no major problems
What physical changes do adolescence experience? Puberty, hormonal changes
What is puberty triggered by? Hormonal changes
When does puberty occur and for how long? About 4 years, earlier in girls than boys, and one person can reproduce, timing varies
When does sexual attraction seemed to begin? Why? Age 9 or 10, adrenal glands increase hormonal output
What happens during puberty? Boys and girls undergo adolescent growth spurt, reproductive organs enlarge and mature, secondary sex characteristics appear
What possibly started the earlier attainment of adult height and sexual maturity? When did this occur? Improvement in standards of living, 100 years ago
What are the principal signs of sexual maturity for males and females? Males-sperm, females-menstruation
How do these changes affect them psychologically? They can be happy or upset about it depending on parent and peer influence
What brain developments occur during adolescence? Not fully mature, overproduction of gray matter especially in frontal lobes, pruning of excess nerve cells, continuing of myelination, maturation of cognitive processing
Contrast how adolescents and adults process information about emotions. How does this affect adolescents’ judgment? Adolescence-amygdala, adults-frontal lobe, adolescence have less accurate, less reasoned judgments
How does brain development affect behavior? Under development of frontal cortical systems connected with motivation, impulsivity, addiction lead adolescences to risk taking
What are adolescent health problems usually associated with? Poverty or lifestyle
Why do adolescences tend to not get enough sleep? High school schedule is out of sync with natural body rhythm
What are 3 common eating disorders in adolescence? Obesity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa
What are the possible effects of anorexia and bulimia? Serious long-term effects, affect mostly girls and young women, bulimia has better outcomes than anorexia
What are some common health problems in adolescence? Do not engage in regular physical activity, not enough sleep, eating disorders, drug use/abuse, marijuana, alcohol, tobacco, depression, motor vehicle accidents, firearm use, suicide
What are the leading causes of death among adolescents? Motor vehicle accidents, firearm use, suicide
How can common health problems be prevented? Eat right, exercise, don't play with guns, don't abuse drugs, wear protective gear
What can adolescence to reach Piaget's stage a formal operations do? Engage in hypothetical-deductive reasoning, think in terms of possibilities, deal flexibly with problems, test hypotheses
Can everyone use the formal operations stage? Why? No, requires environmental stimulation, not all capable, those who are capable do not always use it
What structural changes occur in adolescence? Increase in declarative, procedural, conceptual knowledge and expansion of capacity of working memory
What functional a changes occur in adolescence? Progress in deductive reasoning
What may lead older adolescences to make poorer decisions than younger adolescence? Emotional immaturity
How do adolescence thinking and language use differ from young children's? Hypothetical deductive reasoning, structural change, functional change, vocabulary, language development, social perspective taking, wordplay, create their own dialect
What does Kohlberg propose about moral development progression? Progressives from external control to internalize societal standards to personal, principled moral codes
On what grounds has Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning been questioned? Failure to credit roles of emotion, socialization, parental guidance, applicability to women and girls and people in non-Western cultures
On what basis do adolescences make moral judgments? Developing sense of justice, growing cognitive ability
What influences affect adolescents school success? Self-efficacy beliefs, parental practices, culture and peer influences, gender, quality of schooling
Which students have the highest dropout rate? Poor, Hispanic, black, racial/ethnic gap narrowing
Why is active engagement important for adolescences? Keep adolescence in school
What can benefit high school graduates who do not immediately go to college? Vocational training
What is the effect of part-time work on students? Positive and negative affect on educational, social, occupational development, best when working hours are limited
What influences affect adolescents educational and vocational planning and preparation? Self efficacy, parental values
Created by: love_fire_roses
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