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Social Psych Exam #1

chapters 1-4 Social psychology Franzoi

QuestionAnswer
The scientific discipline that attempts to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others. Social Psychology
The process by which someone's expectations ab out a person or group leads to the fulfillment of those expectations. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
A symbol-using social being who can reflect on his or her own behavior Self
An important perspective in social psychology that emphasizes the combined effects of both the person and the situation on human behavior Interactionism
Theories of social cognition that describe two basic ways of thinking about social stimuli, one involving automatic, effortless thinking and the other involving more deliberate, effortful thinking. Dual-process theories
Judgments or decisions that are under the control of automatically activated evaluations occurring without our awareness. Implicit cognition
The total lifestyle of a people,including all the ideas, symbols, preferences and material objects that they share. Culture
A philosophy of life stressing the priority of individual needs over group needs, a preference for loosely knit social relationships, and a desire to be relatively autonomous of others influence. Individualism
A philosphy stressing the priority of group needs over individual needs, a preference for tightly knit social relationships and a willingness to submit to the influence of one's group. Collectivism
an approach to psychology based on the principle of natural selection. evolutionary psychology
the biochemical units of inheritance for all living organisms genes
The study of the relationship between neural processes of the brain and social processes Social neuroscience
wrinkled looking outer layer of the brain that coordinates and integrates all other brain areas into a fully functioning unit. This is the brain's "thinking" center, and is much larger in humans than in other animals. Cerebral cortex
the region of the cerebral cortex situated just behind the forehead that is involved in the coordination of movement and higher mental processes, such as planning, social skills, and abstract thinking. frontal lobe
research designed to increase knowledge about social behavior basic research
research designed to increase the understanding of and solutions to real world problems by using current social psychological knowledge. applied research
factors in a study that can be measured and that are capable of changing. variables
a very clear description of how a variable in a study has been measured. operational definition
a methodological technique in which the researcher misinforms participants about the true nature of what they are experiencing in a study. deception
a trained member of the research team who follows a script designed to create a specific impression on the research participant. confederate
a group of people who are selected to participate in a research study. sample
all the members of an identifiable group from which a sample is drawn. population
a scientific method involving systematic qualitative and or quantitative descriptions of behavior. observational research
a descriptive scientific method that investigates behavior in its natural environment. naturalistic observation
a descriptive scientific method where a group is studied from within by a researcher who records behavior as it occurs in its usual natural environment. participant observation
occurs when preconceived ideas held by the researcher affect the nature of the observations made. observer bias
a descriptive scientific method in which already existing records are examined. archival research
research designed to examine the nature of the relationship between two or more naturally occurring variables. correlational research
structure sets of questions or statements given to a group of people to measure their attitudes, beliefs, values or behavioral tendencies. surveys
a type of response bias in surveys in which people respond to a question by trying to portray themselves in a favorable light rather than responding in an accurate and truthful manner. social desirability bias
a statistical measure of the direction and strength of the linear relationship between two variables which can range from -1.00 to +1.00 correlation coefficient
a scientific method in which researchers manipulate or change a variable to observe the effect on some other variable. experimental method
the experimental variable that the researcher manipulates independent variable
the experimental variable that is measured because it is believed to depend on the manipulated changes in the independent variable. dependent variable
the extent to which a study's findings can be generalized to people beyond those in the study itself. external validity
the extent to which cause and effect conclusions can validly be made in a study internal validity
an experimental result that occurs when two independent variables in combination have different effects on the dependent variable than when alone. interaction effect
placement of research participants into experimental conditions in a manner that guarantees that all have an equal chance of being exposed to each level of the independent variable. random assignment.
repeating oan earlier study's scientific procedures using different participants in an attempt to duplicate the findings. replication
the use of statistical techniques to sum up a body of similar studies in order to objectively estimate the reliability and overall size of the effect meta analysis
the sum total of a person's thoughts and feelings that defines the self as an object. self concept
a psychological state in which you take yourself as an object of attention self-awareness
the habitual tendency to engage in self awareness self consciousness
the ways in which people control and direct their own actions. self regulation
a theory contending that through self awareness people compare their behavior to a standard, and if there is a discrepancy, they work to reduce it. control theory of self-regulation
discrepancies between our self-concept and how we would ideally like to be or believe others think we should be. self-discrepancies
a cognitive structure that represents how you think about yourself in a particular domain and how you organize your experiences in that domain. self-schema
a way of conceiving the self in terms of unique, personal attributes and as a being that is separate and autonomous from the group. independent self
a way of conceiving the self in terms of social roles and as a being that is embedded in and dependent on the group. interdependent self
the process by which biculturalists switch between different culturally appropriate behaviors depending on the context. cultural frame switching
the identification of oneself as male or female gender identity
aspects of a person's self concept based on his or her group memberships social identities
an individuals sense of personal identification with a particular ethnic group. ethnic identity
the process of constructing and presenting the self in order to shape other people's impressions and achieve ulterior goals. strategic self presentation
a self presentation strategy in which a person creates obstacles to his or her own performance either to provide an excuse for failure or to enhance success. self-handicapping
the tendency to use cues from other people's self presentation in controlling ones own self presentations. self-monitoring
a person's evaluation of his or her self-concept self-esteem
the process of seeking out and interpreting situations so as to attain a positive view of oneself. self-enhancement
the process of seeking out and interpreting situations so as to confirm one's self concept. self-verification
a person's conscious and deliberate evaluation of his or her self-concept explicit self-esteem
a person's unintentional and perhaps unconscious evaluation of his or her self-concept. implicit self-esteem
a theory predicting under what conditions people are likely to react to the success of other with either pride or jealousy self evaluation maintenance model
Created by: birthdaysuitup