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Chapter 9

Cervical/Thoracic Pathology

Clay Shoveler's Fracture Fracture resulting from hyperflexion of the neck resulting in avulsion fractures on the spinous processes of C6 thru T1
Compression Fracture Collapse of a vertebral body. Can result in severe Kyphosis. Anterior edge collapses changing the Body into a wedge instead of a block. Lateral Projection
Hangmans Fracture Extends thru pedicles of C2 w/ or w/o subluxation of C2 upon C3. Neck hyperextends. Lateral Projection
Jefferson Fracture Produced by landing on one's head or abruptly on one's feet. Anterior and posterior arches of C1 are fractured. AP open mouth & LAT c-spine
Odontoid Fracture Involves the Dens & can extend into the lateral masses/arches of C1. AP open mouth projection
Teardrop Burst Fracture Compression w/hyperflexion in cervical region. Body is comminuted w/triangular fragments from the anteroinferior border & fragments from the posterior body displaced into the spinal canal. Neurological damage (quadriplegia). CT, AP,LAT c-spine
Facets-unilateral subluxations & bilateral locks Zygopophyseal joints in cervical region disrupted during trauma.1 Zygo.joint may be out of alignment.Radiographically "bow tie". Both rt. & lft. zygo.joints on the same level can be disrupted creating bilateral locked facets.Body "jumped" over Body.AP,LAT
Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP) Inner part of intervertebral disk protrudes thru fibrous cartilage outer layer (annulus) into spinal canal."Slipped disk". Myelography traditionaly used; now MRI.
Kyphosis Abnormal/exaggerated convex curvature of T-Spine. LAT projection
Lordosis Normal concave curvature of L-Spine & an abnormal/exaggerated concave lumbar curvature. LAT projection
Scoliosis Abnormal/exaggerated lateral curvature of spine.
Osteoarthritis degeneration fo one or many joints. Changes include bony sclerosis, degeneration of cartilage, & formation of osteophytes.
Osteoporosis (-) Loss of bone mass. increases w/age,immobilization,long-term steriod therapy,& menopause. Bone densitometry.
Scheuermann's Disease Begins during adolescence. Abnormal spinal curvature of kyphosis & scoliosis.
Ankylosing Spondylitis Results in stiffness and paraspinal calcification.
Transitional Vertebra When the vertebra takes on a characteristic of the adjacent region of the spine. Mostly in lumbosacral region resulting in englarged transverse processes. Projects from C7.
Created by: freebird