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AP Psych Ch.8 Vocab

PHS Mr. Magnusen's AP Psychology Class

QuestionAnswer
Emotion A four part process that involves physiological arousal, subjective feelings, cognitive interpretation, and behavioral expression -- all of which interact, rather than occurring in a linear sequence.
Display Rules The permissible ways of displaying emotions in a particular society.
Lateralization of Emotion Different influence of the two brain hemispheres on various emotions. The left, positive emotions such as happiness. The right, negative emotions such as anger.
James-Lange Theory The proposal that an emotion provoking stimulus produces a physical response that, in turn, produces an emotion.
Cannon-Bard Theory The counter proposal that an emotional feeling and an internal physiological response occur at the same time. One is not the cause of the other. Both were believed to be the result of cognitive appraisal of the situation.
Two-Factor Theory The proposal claiming that emotion results from the cognitive appraisal of both physical arousal (factor 1) and an emotion provoking stimulus (factor 2).
Cognitive Appraisal Theory Theory of emotion which theorizes that individuals decide on an appropriate emotion following the event.
Opponent-Process Theory Theory of emotion which theorizes that emotions have pairs. When one is triggered, the other is suppressed.
Inverted U Function Describes the relationship between arousal and performance. Both low and high levels of arousal produce lower performance than does a moderate level of arousal.
Sensation Seekers In Zuckerman's theory, individuals who have a biological need for higher levels of stimulation than do other people.
Emotional Intelligence The ability to understand and control emotional responses.
Polygraph A device that records or graphs many measures of physical arousal, such as heart rate, breathing, perspiration, and blood pressure. A polygraph is often called a "lie detector," even though it is really an arousal detector.
Motivation All the processes involved in starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities.
Drive Biological instigated motivation.
Motive An internal mechanism that selects and directs behavior.
Intrinsic Motive The desire to engage in an activity for its own sake, rather than for some external consequence, such as a reward.
Extrinsic Motivation The desire to engage in an activity to achieve an external consequence, such as a reward.
Conscious Motivation Having the desire to engage in an activity and being aware of the desire.
Unconscious Motivation Having a desire to engage in an activity but being consciously unaware of the desire. Freud's psychoanalytic theory emphasized unconscious motivation.
Instinct Theory The now outmoded view that certain behaviors are completely determined by innate factors. The theory was flawed because it overlooked the effects of learning and because it employed instincts merely as labels, rather than as explanations for behavior
Fixed-Action Patterns Genetically based behaviors, seen across a species, that can be set off by a specific stimulus. The concept of fixed action patterns gas replaced the older notion of instinct.
Need In drive theory, a need is a biological imbalance (such as dehydration) that threatens survival if the need is left unmet. Biological needs are believed to produce drives
Homeostasis The body's tendency to maintain a biologically balanced condition, especially with regard to nutrients, water, and temperature.
Locus of Control An individual's sense of where his or her life influences originate -- internally or externally.
Hierarchy of Needs In Maslow's theory, the notion that needs occur in priority order, with the biological needs as the most basic.
Overjustification The process by which extrinsic (external) rewards can sometimes displace internal motivation, as when a child receives money for playing video games.
Need for Achievement (n Ach) In Murray and McClelland's theory, a mental state that produces a psychological motive to excel or to reach some goal.
Individualism The view, common in the Euro-American world, that places a high value on individual achievement and distinction.
Collectivism The view, common in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East, that values group loyalty and pride over individual distinction.
Set Point Refers to the tendency of the body to maintain a certain level of body fat and body weight.
Volumetric Thirst A drop in extracellular fluid levels.
Osmotic Thirst A drop in intracellular fluid levels.
Sexual Response Cycle The four stage sequence of arousal, plateau, orgasm, and resolution occurring in both men and women.
Sexual Script Socially learned ways of responding in sexual situations.
Approach-Approach Conflict A conflict in which one must choose between two equally attractive options.
Approach-Avoidance Conflict A conflict in which there are both appealing and negative aspects to the decision to be made.
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict A conflict in which one has to choose between two equally unattractive options.
Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflict A conflict in which one must choose between two options that have both many attractive and many negative aspects.
Sexual Orientation One's erotic attraction toward members of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both sexes.
Stress A physical and mental response to a challenging or threatening situations.
Stressor A stressful stimulus, a condition demanding adaption.
Traumatic Stressor A situation that threatens one's physical safety, arousing feelings or fear, horror, or helplessness.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Delayed stress reaction in which an individual involuntarily reexperiences emotional, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of past trauma.
Acute Stress A temporary pattern of stressor-activated arousal with a distinct onset and limited duration.
Chronic Stress Continuous stressful arousal persisting over time.
Fight-or-Flight Response Sequence of internal processes preparing an organism for struggle or escape.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Pattern of general physical responses that take essentially the same form in responding to any serious chronic stressor.
Alarm Reaction First stage if the GAS, during which the body mobilizes it's resources to cope with a stressor.
Tend-and-Befriend Model Stress response model proposing that females are biologically predisposed to respond to threat by nurturing and protecting offspring and seeking social support.
Immune System Bodily organs and responses that protect the body from foreign substances and threats.
Psychoneuroimmunology Multidisciplinary field that studies the influence of mental states in the immune system.
Cytokines Hormonelike chemicals facilitating communication between brain and immune system.
Type A Behavior pattern characterized intense, angry, competitive, or perfectionistic responses to challenging situations.
Type B Behavior pattern characterized by relaxed, unstressed approach to life.
Learned Helplessness Pattern of failure to respond to noxious stimuli after an organism learns its responses are ineffected.
Stage of Resistance Second stage of the GAS, during which the body adapts to and uses resources to cope with a stressor.
Stage of Exhaustion Third stage of the GAS, during which the body depletes its resources in responding to an ongoing stressor.
Flow In Csikszentmihalyi’s theory, an intense focus on an activity, accompanied by increased creativity and near-ecstatic feelings. Flow involves intrinsic motivation.
Created by: victorianicholas