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Intelligence & Testi

Types of Testing 1. Intelligence 2. Achievement 3. Aptitude 4. Personality
Intelligence Testing Measures general mental ability
Achievement Test Measures mastery in a particular area
Aptitude Test Measures aptitude in a particular area
Personality Test Measures attitudes, interests, values
Standardized Test Same test administered on the same day, in an uniform way and scored the same way
Norm Shows where your score ranked in relation to others who took the same test
Percentile Is a norm that tells you that a certain percentage of people scored at or below your raw score. This IS NOT your raw score
Reliability You should score relatively the same whenever you take the test--consistent measure
Validity The test measures what it is supposed to measure
Content Validity The test contained only the material you were told would be measured
Construct Validity The test measures whatever criteria is being measured like happiness, open-mindedness
Criterion-Related Validity Two scores on a test, or another, are correlated. Ex: IQ and open-mindedness
Predictive Validity Foretells with accuracy if the person taking the test will be successful in whatever area represents the test's measure
Galton Late 1800s Claimed that intelligence is hereditary. If successful people are successful through the generations, it must be hereditary. Neglects that money buys resources for a family like private schooling, tutoring, experiences
Binet 1904 French psychologist commissioned by the French government to construct a test for people of subnormal intelligence and then normal to above intelligence. He died while constructing that test
Terman 1911 Binet's friend uses his work to help American psychologists at Stanford U to complete it. First successful IQ test
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test Used to measure WWI and WWII military recruit intelligence and then school children's IQ. Measured math and language achievement and aptitude
Wechsler Suggested non-verbal items on the IQ test like spatial ability. Female IQ scores decreased
Formula for IQ measurement Mental Age (test score)/chronological age x 100
Gardner Developed the Multiple Intelligences Test
Linguistic Intelligence Like to read, write, research and present
Math & Logic Like math and reasoning
Interpersonal Good social skills: can read body language, understand people, likes to mingle with groups of people
Intrapersonal Likes the company of one's self, keeps a journal, prefers smaller groups of people
Musical Likes music, knows recordings, genres
Naturist Likes to be outside, landscapers, gardeners, herbalists
Visual/Spatial Artistic--also interior designers, architects, landscape designers
Scientific Likes scientific subjects--biology, chemistry, physics, anatomy
Body/Kinesthetic Knows their body--athlete, dancer, trainer, interested in nutrition
Sternberg Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: Analytical Intelligence, Practical Intelligence, and Creative Intelligence
Analytical Intelligence Convergent Thinking: Usual type of reasoning whether deductive or inductive
Practical Intelligence People who learn by doing
Creative Intelligence Divergent Thinking like our Functional Fixedness exercise
Cattell Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
Fluid Intelligence Can learn new things, reason well
Crystallized Intelligence Uses wisdom from learned experience to advise
Spearman Took a number of intelligences and did a factor analysis to come up with a score representing general mental ability, therefore the "g" factor
Average IQ on the standard bell curve 100
Range of the Standard Deviations away from the Mean 15 points
Each standard deviation equals a Z score. If a person's IQ is +2 Z scores, this means they are 2 standard deviations above 100 and their IQ is in the range of 130 to 145
The majority of people who fall one SD (or z score) above and below the mean 68%--34% one standard deviation above (100-115) and 34% one below the mean (85 to 100)
Percentage of people who fall two SD (or z scores) above and below the mean 28% - 14% two z scores above the mean (115-130) and 14% below the mean (70 to 85)
Percentage of people who fall three SD (or z scores) above and below the mean 4% - 2% three z scores above the mean (130-145) and 2% below the mean (55 to 70)
Percentage of people who fall four SD (or z scores) above and below the mean .2% - .1% 4 z scores above the mean (+145) and below the mean .1% (- 55)
Low Functioning Sub average intelligence with problems in adaptive skills before 18 years of age.
What kind of skew will a curve show for low functioning IQ ranges? Positive--above average IQ scores are missing
High Functioning People with IQ 130-145% and above
What kind of a skew will a curve show for high functioning IQ ranges? Negative - IQ scores for -55 to 129 are missing
Moderately Gifted IQs 130 to 145
Profoundly Gifted IQs 145+
Terman's Study about Gifted People Untrue: above average in height, weight, social skills, emotional intelligence
Extraordinary Achievement Criteria Intersection of high intelligence, high creativity and high motivation
Flynn Effect IQ has been rising with each generation since 1930s
Supposition about the Flynn Effect Decrease in malnutrition, more family resources, more people being educated, more highly educated parents, better school curricula and technology
Stereotype Threat Effect Steele & Aronson: A stigmatized group like women and math/science will underperform on a standardized test when the stereotype against them becomes noticeable.
Emotional Intelligence Can control emotion, good impulse control, read body language and express within the boundaries of their culture
Marshmallow Experiment Stanford U experiment testing impulse control of children ages 2-5/6. As children age, their control should improve
Heritability Ratio The proportion of genetic variability in a given population
Heritability Ratio for fraternal twins 1:2
Heritability Ratio for Identical twins 0
Highest correlation for IQ and nature .85 for identical twins raised in same family
Correlation for IQ and nature/nurture .74 for identical twins raised apart
Evidence for nurture Adopted children raised in the same family have high correlation for IQ
Created by: lmckay
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