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Psychology 101


Ethical constraints of studies Protection From Harm, Right to Withdraw, Confidentiality, Informed Consent, Debriefing, Deception
Parts of neurons the dendrites, the cell body ("soma"), the axon axon terminal
Action potential occurs when a neuron transmits an electrical charge down its axon, which terminates in the release of chemical signals in the form of neurotransmitters
Nervous system divisions the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves that branch off from the spinal cord and extend to all parts of the body
Sympathetic activation When faced with imminent physical danger, the human body's sympathetic nervous system triggers our "fight-or-flight" response
Symptoms of fight or flight Increase heart rate, Dilation of the pupils, Secretion of sweat glands, Dilated muscles, Increased alertness, Slowing down or stopping digestion, Relaxation of the bladder
Phineas Gage American railroad foreman known for having survived a traumatic brain injury caused by an iron rod that shot through his skull and obliterated the greater part of the left frontal lobe of his brain
Melatonin a natural hormone your body produces in response to darkness
REM sleep rapid eye movements and almost complete paralysis of the body, and a tendency to dream
Dreams a succession of sensations, emotions, ideas, and images that occur involuntarily in a person's mind during certain stages of sleep.
Cataplexy sudden loss of muscle tone, while a person is awake, leads to weakness and a loss of voluntary muscle control
Inattentional blindness failure to notice a fully visible, but unexpected object because attention was engaged on another task, event, or object
Top-down processing processing involves the brain 'sending down' stored information to the sensory system as it receives information from the stimulus.
Bottom-up processing processing can be defined as sensory analysis that begins at the entry level—with what our senses can detect.
Amplitude maximum disturbance of the medium from its equilibrium. In the case of a wave in a horizontal string, this value is identical to half of the vertical distance between the wave's crest and its trough
wavelength of light the distance between two adjacent crests (or troughs) and is given in meters. refers to the length of a wave from one peak to the next.
Binocular disparity the slight difference between the right and left retinal images
Somatosensation the perception of sensory stimuli coming from the skin that involves senses of touch, temperature, body position, and pain.
Proprioception otherwise known as kinesthesia, is your body's ability to sense movement, action, and location.
Gestalt principles of sensation and perception the different ways individuals group stimuli together in order to make a whole that makes sense to them. These principles are divided up into five categories: proximity, similarity, continuity, connectedness, and closure.
Classical conditioning type of unconscious or automatic learning, two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. unconditioned stimulus (US), conditioned stimulus (CS) unconditioned response (UR), conditioned response (CR).
Operant conditioning a process by which humans and animals learn to behave in such a way as to obtain rewards and avoid punishments.
Social learning theory theory suggests that social behavior is learned by observing and imitating the behavior of others.
Social learning theory Albert Bandura emphasizes the importance of observing, modeling, and imitating the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Social learning theory considers how both environmental and cognitive factors interact to influence human learning and behavior.
Substantia nigra and its product is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement. express high levels of a pigment called neuromelanin, pathway for dopamine, antioxidant and protects biomembranes
Types of learning classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning.
Definition of psychology the study of human mental states and behaviors
Skinner's box a small chamber that is used to conduct operant conditioning research with animals
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory of motivation that states that five categories of human needs dictate an individual's behavior. Those needs are physiological needs, safety needs, love, and belonging needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs, Abraham Maslow
Historical perspectives structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanism
Hypothesis precise, testable statement of what the researcher(s) predict will be the outcome of the study Correlation versus causation
Correlation variables are statistically associated.
Causation a change in one variable causes a change in another.
Surveys a data collection tool used to gather information about individuals
Archival research the use of books, journals, historical documents, and other existing records or data available in storage in scientific research
Case studies an in-depth study of one person, group, or event
Longitudinal studies researchers repeatedly examine the same individuals to detect any changes that might occur over a period of time
Cross-sectional studies a type of observational research that analyzes data of variables collected at one given point in time across a sample population or a pre-defined subset
Positive and negative correlation Variables that have a direct relationship increase together and decrease together
Sensation occurs when sensory receptors detect sensory stimuli.
Perception the organization, interpretation, and conscious experience of those sensations
Dendrites function receive communications from other cells
Soma function to maintain the cell and to keep the neuron functioning efficiently
Axon function carries nerve impulses away from the cell body
Axon terminal function release the neurotransmitters of the presynaptic cell
Gyri increase the surface area of the cerebral cortex and they form brain divisions. folds or bumps
Sulci increase the surface area of the cerebral cortex and they form brain divisions. grooves
Conscious mind contains all of the thoughts, memories, feelings, and wishes of which we are aware at any given moment.
Unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that are outside of our conscious awareness.
Reflexes an automatic response to a simple stimulus that does not require mental processing
Instincts a natural or inherent impulse or behavior
John Watson "Little Albert" experiment (1920) popularized the scientific theory of behaviorism, establishing it as a psychological school
B.F Skinner demonstrated the ideas of "operant conditioning" and "shaping behavior"
Ivan Pavlov discovery of classical conditioning, showed that dogs could be conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell if that sound was repeatedly presented at the same time that they were given food
Created by: mosciencehelp
Popular Psychology sets




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