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DH Histology &Embry

Histology and Embryology

QuestionAnswer
What attachment mechanism attaches the cells in the basal layer of stratified squamous epithelium? Desmosome Hemidesmosome Gap, Tight or Basal? A. Cells are attached to other cells by a desmosome attachment.
What attachment mechanism attaches the basement membrane that separates epithelial tissue from underlying connective tissue to the basal cells of the epithelium? Choices:Desmosomes, Hemidesmosomes, Gap, tight or Basal B. Hemidesmosome is the attachment plaque or cellular junction between a cell and noncellular surface. This is the form of attachment in the area between the noncellular basement membrane and the basal layer cells of the stratified squamous epithelium.
The cellular cytoskeletal structures that insert into the attachment plaque mechanism that attaches the epithelium to the basement membrane are: Choices: Microtubules, elastic fibers, mucopolysaccharides, tonofibrils, collagen fibers D. Tonofibrils are bundles of microfilaments (tonofilaments) that insert into attachment plaque mechanism.
The connective tissue is attached to the basement membrane by: Choices: Microtubules, elastic fibers, mucopolysacharides, Tonofibrils, collagen fibers E. Collagen fibers are the most abundant fibers found in connective tissue. They are highly resistant to tension and are part of the anchoring mechanism by which the connective tissue attaches to the basement membrane.
The interface of stratified squamous epithelium and connective tissue usually consists of extensions of the epithelium into the connective tissue. These extensions of epithelium are referred to as: Connective tissue papilla, rete pegs, keratin, epidermis B. The epithelial extensions into connective tissue are called ridges or rete pegs.
What histologic structure comprises attached gingiva: Collagenous lamina propria, no lamina propria, mostly elastic fibers in the lamina propria, No submucosa (could be a combination of these) E. Correct answer is both A & D. Gingival connective tissue has dense connective tissue consisting of heavy, tightly packed collagen fibers. This tissue is present in masticatory oral tissue (gingiva and hard palate). The gingiva has no submucosa.
What histologic structure comprises healthy attached gingiva? circular fibers, rete pegs, connective tissue papilla, fibroblasts or all of the above E. Correct answer is All of the above; therefore, see rationales for A, B, C, and D combined.
What type of epithelium comprises attached gingivia? Keratinized stratified squamous Nonkeratinized stratified squamous, Keratinized simple squamous, Pseudostratified Columnar, or nonkeratinized simple squamous A. Attached gingiva is composed of keratinized (orthokeratinized) stratified squamous epithelium.
1 year after a gingival graft surgery, recipient site has exostosis. What cells produced this bony growth? (Graft taken from hard palate ) Cementoblasts, Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, Osteoclasts B. Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells found at the recipient site.
What type of epithelial tissue is the hard palate? Nonk.simple squamous, kert. simple squamous, orthokert. stratified squamous, pseudostratified columnar Orthokertatinzed stratified squamous epithelium
What is the earliest, most objective clinical sign of inflammation? color change, swelling, attachment loss, bop, exudate? D. Two of the earliest signs of gingival inflammation preceding established gingivitis are increased gingival crevicular fluid and bleeding from the sulcus upon gentle probing.
Sulcular lining in the mand. right molar area, would most likely have the following histologic composition: Nonkerat. and rete pegs, nonkerat./no rete pegs, nonkerat. & rete pegs with sulcular ulcerations, Kerat./no rete pegs, C. The gingival sulcus is usually lined with nonkeratinized stratified epithelium. In a healthy epithelial lining, rete pegs are absent.
Which of the following clinical signs most likely confirms a clients disease has progressed to perio.? loss of clinical attach., BOP, change in gingival color, increased mobility or edematous gingival tissue A. Loss of attachment occurs as the junctional epithelium migrates apically from its normal position at or around the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Presence of loss of attachment is a critical factor in distinguishing between gingivitis and periodontitis.
Which of the following tissue changes result in erythematous gingiva? Increased keritan., presence of inflammatory cells, increased vascularization, increased production of collagen, necrosis or epithelium C. Color change is an important clinical sign of gingival disease. Gingival color varies according to the degree of vascularity, pigmentation, keratinization, and thickness of epithelium.
There is localized inflammation in mand. right molar area, which type of cell is the 1st to migrate into the connective tissue in the inflammatory process? Lymphocytes, PMN (neutrophils) Erythrocytes, plasma cells, basophils B. Neutrophils (PMNs) are the first of the white blood cells to reach the site of injury or infection. They are present in the initial gingival lesions.
Which of the following cells are not white blood cells? Basophils, Eosinophils, Erythrocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes C. Erythrocytes are red blood cells; they are the most numerous of the blood cells.
A client with recession in max. canine areas complains of sensitivity. Sensitivity is most likely related to: fluid entering the sulcular epithelium, fluid entering the rodless enamel, fluid entering dentinal tubules, fluid entering lacuna of the cementum C. The most accepted theory is that hypersensitivity of the dentinal surface to external stimuli is caused by fluid movement within the tubules that transmit signals to nerves in the pulp chamber.
The free unmylinated nerve endings of the pulp can sense: Hot, cold, pressure, pain or all listed D. The free unmyelinated nerve endings of the pulp can sense pain only. Cannot distinguish temp. Cannot distinguish pressure. All stimuli are interpreted as a pain. The encapsulated nerve endings are responsible for registering pressure changes.
The tooth anomaly of a curved root at an angle is best referred to as: concrescence, fusion, gemination, dilacerations, taurodontism D. A sharp bend or curve of the root is known as dilaceration.
The root form is dictated by Hertwig's epithelial rooth sheath. This sheath is derived from the: inner enamel epithelium, reduced enamel epithelium, primary enamel cuticle, rests of malassez, periodontal ligament B. Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath is derived from the most cervical portion of the reduced enamel epithelium (organ). It consists of only two layers of the organ: the inner enamel epithelium and the outer enamel epithelium.
A globulomax. cyst in the palatal area where derivative of globular process fuses with derivatives of max. process. Betw. which teeth is the alveolar ridge area that marks fusion: 1st/2nd premolars, centrals, lat. incisor & canine, canine & 1st premolar The lines of fusion, therefore, fall between the laterals and the canine teeth.
A globulomaxillary cytst arises from odontogenic epithelium. From which part of the tooth germ does this epithelium grow? Dental sac, pulp, enamel organ, cementum or dental papilla C. The tooth germ contains three parts: the enamel organ, the dental papilla, and the dental sac. The enamel organ is the only part of the tooth germ composed of epithelial tissue.
The tissue lining of a healthy gingival sulcus consists of: Kerat. epithel. w/ rete pegs, Kerat. epithel w/o rete pegs, nonkerat. epithel w/rete pegs, nonkerat. epith. w/o rete pegs or Parakeratinized epith. w/ rete pegs D. The healthy gingival sulcus is usually lined with nonkeratinized stratified epithelium without rete pegs.
Which of the following are characteristics of bundle bone? Covered by endosteum, adjacent to pdl & fatty marrow, adjacent to fatty marrow & covered by endosteum or contains sharpey's fibers and is adjacent to pdl D. Bundle bone is adjacent to the periodontal ligament. It contains one end of the Sharpey’s fibers.
All of the following tissues have little or no keritanization, which one is the exception? attached gingiva, sulcular epithelium, alveolar mocosa, soft palate, or ventral tissue of the tongue A. Attached gingiva is covered by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
The dark stained lines seen in cementum that represents rest periods in cementum formation are called: Stripes of Retziums, Lamina Dura, Cementoid, Incremental lines, Lamellae D. The phasic formation of the hard tissues of the tooth is characterized by periods of production and mineralization and rest periods. These phases are represented in formed cementum as incremental lines.
What type of cells are found in Howship's lacunae? Osteocytes, Osteoclasts, Cementocytes, Cementoclasts B. Howship’s lacunae are found in areas of resorbed bone. The bone-resorbing cells (osteoclasts) are found in these hollowed out depressions that the osteoclasts created.
Alveolar bone is the most stable of the periodontal tissues. Pressure does not affect it. 1st true/2nd false, 1st false/2nd true, both false, both true C. Both statements are false. Alveolar bone is constantly remodeled by means of resorption and formation; pressures used in orthodontics encourage the bone to change; this makes bone the least stable of the periodontal tissues.
What cells are important in the formation of the principal fibers of the PDL? Cementoblasts, Cementoclasts, Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts, Fibroblasts E. Fibroblasts are fiber-forming cells. They are important in the formation of the principal fibers of the periodontal ligament.
All of the following relationships btw enamel and cementum can occure except one: Enamel overlaps cementum, enamel and cementum just meet, enamel and cementum do not meet, cementum overlaps enamel A. Enamel forms before cementum; therefore, enamel cannot overlap cementum.
What is the name of the space occupied by the body of the cementocyte? Lamellae, Lacuna, Canaliculi, Cementicle, Foramen B. The space occupied by a cementocyte is called a lacuna, meaning “little space.”
During ortho tx, pressure applied to the PDL is intended to produce bone formation. Tension on PDL is also intended to initiate bone formation. 1st true/2nd false, 1st false/2nd true, both false, both true B. Pressure on the periodontal ligament stimulates resorption of bone. Tension initiates bone formation.
Cementum differs from bone in that cementum: contains cells, has no blood vessels, is 50% inorganic/50% organic, is harder, resorbs more readily B. Cementum is different from bone in that cementum contains no blood vessels; bone is a vascular tissue.
All of the following are names for excessive cementum except one. Which one? Cementum hyperplasia, hypocementum, excementosis, hypercementosis B. Hypo- is a prefix meaning “less than.” Hypercementosis would describe excessive formation. Cementum hyperplasia and excementosis are also terms used to mean excessive formation of cementum.
What is the name of the outer, less-calcified layer of cementum? cellular cementum, Acellular cementum, Cementoid, Cementicles, Sharpey's fibers C. Cementoid is the outer less-calcified layer of cemental tissue. It is the layer of organic matrix that was most recently laid down. This cementoid layer results in cementum resorbing less readily than bone.
Which of the following cells are found in the PDL? Fibroblasts & osteocytes, Osteoclasts and Cementoblasts, Cementocytes and fibroblasts, Osteocytes and cementocytes, Osteoblasts and osteocytes B. The PDL is specialized periosteum (forming & resorbing cementum & bone. It contains osteoblasts, osteoclasts, cementoblasts, cementoclasts, & cells for the formation & resorption of fibers. It does not contain osteocytes or cementocytes
What is the name of the ends of the PDL fibers that are embeded in the cementum and bone? Principal fibers, Korff's fibers, Sharpey's fibers, Dentinal fibers, Gingival fibers C. Sharpey’s fibers are the terminal portion of the periodontal ligament fibers that are embedded in calcified substance (cementum or bone).
What will most likely cause a decrease in the width of the pdl that is sometimes observed radiographically? Hyperfunction, Hypofunction, Occlusal trauma, Inflammation B. A decrease in the periodontal ligament space occurs when there is hypofunction (less stimulation from occlusal forces).
What name is given to the remnants of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath found in the PDL of a functioning tooth? Enamel pearls, denticles, Rests of Malassez, Cementicles, Intermediate plexus C. The Rests of Malassez are remnants of Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath that remain in the periodontal ligament space following root formation. They are the source of cyst formation.
During cellular mitosis, what is the phase during which the chromatids are held together by a centromere, and the nuclear membrane disappears? Interphase, Prophase, Telophase, Metaphase, Anaphase B. During prophase, the chromosomes coil & contract; each chromosome consists of a pair of strands called chromatids held together by a centromere. The nuclear envelope disappears. The centriole divides & the two centrioles move to opposite poles.
Which embryonic structure is the precursor to the region of the palatine tonsil? Stomodeum, Globular process, First branchial arch, mandible, buccopharyngeal membrane E. The buccopharyngeal membrane is the membrane that initially separates the primitive foregut (digestive tract) from the stomodeum (primitive mouth). It is located in the region that will eventually be the site of the palatine tonsils.
The pituitary gland or hypophysis has a close embryonic relationship to the : 1st branchial arch, globular process, mandible, stomodeum, primitive digestive tract D. Rathke's pouch is a small invagination in the roof of the stomodeum; the pouch deepens into the brain and forms the anterior lobe of pituitary gland.
The anterior portion, or body of the tongue, develops from which one of the following structures: 2nd Branchial Arch, Maxillary process, mandibular process, globular process, Rathke's pouch C. The mandibular process gives rise to the body of the tongue. Maxillary processes arise from the superolateral border of the first branchial arch. Once this occurs, the rest of the first branchial arch is referred to as the mandibular process.
A cleft lip occurs when the maxillary process fails to fuse with which one of the following embryonic processes? Palatine process, Globular process, lateral nasal process, mandibular process, opposing maxillary process B. Cleft lip occurs when the maxillary process fails to fuse with the globular process. The maxillary process forms the sides of the lip, and the globular process forms the center or philtrum of the lip
Created by: aheflin