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Ch 20

Landmarks of the Skull and Cranial Bones

midsagittal, or median, plane (MSP) divides the body into left and right halves; for every AP and PA or lateral projection of the cranium, the midsagittal plane is perpendicular to or parallel to the plane of the IR.
interpupillary (IPL), or interorbintal, line a line that connects the pupils or the outer canthi of the patient's eyes; when head is placed in a true lateral position, the inter-pupillary line must be exactly perpendicular to the plane of the IR.
superciliary ridge (arch) that ridge or arch of bone that extends across the forehead directly above each eye
supraorbital groove, or SOG a slight groove or depression that is slightly above the superciliary ridge above each eye
glabella the smooth, slightly raised triangular area between and slightly superior to the eyebrows and above the ridge of the nose
nasion located at the junction of the two nasal bones and the frontal bone
acanthion the midline point at the junction of the upper lip and the nasal septum; where the nose and upper lip meet
angle, or gonion refers to the lower posterior angle on each side of the jaw or mandible
mental point triangular area of the chin as it appears from the front
auricle, or pinna external portion of the ear; the large flap of ear made of cartilage
tragus the small cartilaginous flap that covers the opening of the ear
TEA refers to the superior attachment of the auricle, or part where the side frames of eyeglasses rest; corresponds to the highest level of the petrous ridge
canthi the junctions of the upper and lower eyelids
inner canthus where the eyelids meet near the nose
outer canthus the more lateral junction of the eyelids
supraorbital margin, or SOM the superior rim of the bony orbit of the eye
infraorbital margin, or IOM the inferior rim of the bony orbit of the eye
midlateral orbital margin that portion of the lateral rim of the bony orbit of the eye that is near the outer canthus of the eye
EAM, or external acoustic meatus the opening of the external ear canal
auricular point the center point of the EAM opening
glabellomeatal lie (GML) the most superior positioning line between the glabella and the EAM; slightly above the eyebrow arch
orbitomeatal line (OML) located between the outer canthus (midlateral orbital margin) and the EAM
infraorbitomeatal line (IOML) formed by connecting the infraorbital margin to the EAM; also known as Reid's base line, or anthropologic base line
acanthiomeatal line (AML) formed by connecting the acanthion to the EAM
mentomeatal line (MML) formed by connecting the mental point to the EAM
lipsmeatal line (LML) a line from the junction of the lips to the EAM
glabelloalveolar line (GAL) connects the glabella to a point at the anterior aspect of the alveolar process of the maxilla
inion the most prominent point of the external occipital protuberance; a posterior extension of the IOML approximates the location of the anion
Created by: sunshineb