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Chapter 19

Pediatric Pathology

Aspiration when foreign objects are swallowed into the air passages of the bronchial tree; most likely right bronchus because of size and angle of divergence
Asthma airways are narrowed by stimuli that do not affect the airways in normal lungs; labored breathing, increased mucus in the lungs
Atelectasis collaspse of all or portion of a lung because of obstruction of bronchus or puncture
Bronchiectasis widening of bronchi due to acute infection of congenital abnormality
Croup narrowing of upper airway resulting in labored breathing, harsh, dry cough
Cystic Fibrosis inherited disease which results in heavy mucous which clog's bronchi, bronchioles
Meconium ileus type of intestinal obstruction caused by this thick type of mucous
Meconium a dark green secretion of the liver and intestinal glands mixed with some amniotic fluid
Meconium Aspiration during birth fetus under stress passes meconium stools during into amniotic fluid and inhales it into the lungs; causes airway to collapse causing rupture; pneumothorax or atelectasis
Epiglottitis bacterial infection of the epiglottitis; blockage of the airway caused by swelling; a serious condition that can rapidly become fatal (within hours of onset); exam done in upright position by a specialist
Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD) now called respiritory distress syndrome (RDS); alveoli and capillaries are injured or infected resulting in leakage of fluid or blood into lung spaces
Neoplasia formation of tumor/neoplasm in the respiratory tract
Pneumonia accumulation of fluid within the lungs
Pneumothorax air in the pleural spaces causing partial or total collapse of the lung; may be caused by trauma or a pathologic condition
Pneumomediastinum air leaks from the air sacs into the soft tissue between the lung and heart
Diaphragmatic Hernia a tear in the diaphragm which results in protrusion of abdominal contents through the diaphragm and into the lungs
Congenital goiter an enlarged thyroid at birth caused by an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) or an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
Cretinism Hypothyroidism; slow bone growth or possible drawfism
Neonatal Graves' disease Hyperthyroidism in adults; inherited from mom with Graves' disease; life-threatening; enlarged thyroid can press against the airway and close it causing difficult breathing; eyes protrude
Craniostenosis deformity of the skull caused by premature closure of skull structures; most common is sagittal suture
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) older term is congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH); femoral hip is separated by the acetabulum; Ultrasound used to confirm; Pavlik Harness is used
Hydrocephalus enlarged ventricles from which the cerebrospinal fluid produced in the ventricles cannot drain; results in pressure buildup and overall enlargement of the head; shunts inserted into brain to alleviate pressure and fluid from the brain
Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis bone becomes less dense and fragile
Osteogenesis Imperfecta hereditary disorder where bones are abnormally soft and fragile
Osteomyelitis infection of a long bone
Osteochondrodysplasia hereditary disorder in which bones grow abnormally, most of which cause dwarfism or short stature
Achondroplasia short limbed dwarfism, bone formation decreased at growth plates; usually affects upper and lower limbs, not torso
Osteopetrosis hereditary condition; results in an increase in bone density; usually present with skull abnormalities; common in African Americans; marble bone
Osteochondromas/Osteochondrosis affects the epiphyseal or growth plates of long bones; results in excessive bone growth protrusions extending from bone; very painful; deformities and abnormal bone growth
Legg Calves Perthes disease abnormal bone growth at the hip (head and neck) of the femur; results in a flattened head and later appears fragmented; overweight children ages 5-10yrs
Kohler's bone disease causes inflammation of bone and cartilage of the navicular bone of the foot; common in males 3-5yrs
Osgood Schlatter's disease inflammation of the tibial tuberosity (patella tendon attachment); results in a wearing away of the bone in this region; common in males 5-10yrs
Osteomalacia (Rickets) condition in which developing bones do not harden or calcify causing skeletal deformities; common sign is bowing legs or "Blount's disease)
Spina Bifida posterior aspect of the vertebrae fails to develop exposing part of the spinal cord; ultrasound used to diagnose before birth
Spina Bifida Occulta mild form of SB resulting in some defect or splitting of the posterior arch of L5 - S1; no protrusion of meninges or spinal cord
Meningocele severe form of SP; results in protrusion of the meninges through the undeveloped opening of the vertebrae; creates a cerebrospinal fluid filled bulge under the skin called a meningocele
Myelocele most severe case of SP; both meninge and spinal cord protrude from the vertebrae
Talipes (Clubfoot) congenital deformity of the foot
Talipes Varus inward, medial turning of foot (walk on outer portion of foot)
Talipes Valgus outward, lateral turning of foot (walk on inner portion of foot)
Talipes Equinus foot plantar flexed (walk on tippy toes)
Talipes Calcaneus foot dorsiflexed (walk on heel)
Bone Tumors most common Ewing's Sarcoma cancer in children 10-18yrs
Atresias an opening to an organ is absent (Ex: anal, biliary, esophageal, duodenal, mitral, tricuspid atresia's)
Hypospadias congenital condition in males when the opening of the urethra is to the underside of the penis
Hirschsprung's disease condition of large intestine where nerves controlling rhythmic contractions are missing; results in severe constipation
Inflammatory Bowel disease chronic inflammation of the intestines
Crohn's disease an infection of either small or large intestine or both
Ulcerative Colitis involves only the large intestive; starts in the rectum or sigmoid
Intussusception obstruction caused by the telescoping of a loop of intestine into another loop
Volvulus an obstruction caused by the twisting of the intestine itself; corkscrew
Ileus obstruction caused by lack of contractile movement of the intestinal wall
Necrotizing Enterocolitis inflammation of the intestine due to injury or inflammatory disease; results in bowel death if not treated promptly
Pyloric Stenosis narrowing or blocking at the pylorus or stomach outlet; occurs in infants resulting in constant vomiting
Neuroblastoma malignant cancer in parts of the nervous system; frequently the adrenal gland; 2nd most common in children
Wilm's tumor a cancer of the kidneys; typically involves only one kidney; most common abdominal cancer in infants or children younger than 5yrs
Polyscystic Kidney disease inherited condition when many cysts form in the kidney causing enlargement
Pyelonephritis a bacterial infection caused by urinary reflux (back-up of urine from bladder into kidney)
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi; involves the bladder and urethra; common cause is vesicoureteral reflux; most common in males but after age 1 more common in females
Vesicoureteral Reflux a backward flow of urine from the bladder into the ureters and kidneys increasing the chance of spreading infection
Pyelonephritis bacterial infection of the kidneys caused by vesicoureteral reflux
Hematuria blood in urine
Hepatitis infection of the liver
Hepatomegaly enlargment of the liver
Hydronephrosis enlarged kidney distended with urine; caused by obstruction of urine
Horseshoe Kidney the two kidneys are joined together at their lower pelves
Created by: sunshineb