Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Blood Glucose Agents

Module 4 Drug Classifications

What is the action of insulin? Hormone promoting the storage of the body's fuels. Facilitates the transportation of metabolites & ions across the cell membranes. Stimulates GLYCOGEN synthesis from glucose. Reacts w/specific receptor sites on the cells.
What are the indications for using insulin? To be used on: Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes
What is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus? When the pancreas's beta cells are destroyed & cannot produce enough insulin.
What is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? When patients are unable to produce enough insulin, or insulin receptors are not sensitive enough to insulin to maintain glucose control. CANNOT be controlled by diet or other agents.
What are the contraindications for using insulin? No contraindications, because it is a replacement hormone.
What should you be cautious for prior to administering insulin? Pregnancy & Lactation due to changes in metabolic rate. Needs to be monitored closely & adjusted frequently.
What are the adverse effects for insulin? Hypoglycemia: When given an excess, glucose levels drop. Ketoacidosis: Can result when under dosing due to high blood sugar.
What are the drug-drug interactions for insulin? Any drug that DECREASES GLUCOSE LEVELS= HYPOGLYCEMIA. BETA BLOCKERS (used for hypertension): can mask signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia.
What is hyperglycemia and the range? Increased blood sugar. 126 mg/dl or HIGHER
Define glycosuria Sugar is spilled into the urine
Define polyphagia Increased hunger
Define Polydipsia Increased thirst
Define Lipolysis Fat breakdown
Define Ketosis breakdown of fats for energy resulting in increase in ketones to be excreted in the body. Ketones cannot be removed effectively.
Define Acidsosis Liver cannot remove all of the waste products
What is Glycosylated hemoglobin ( HbA1c)? Blood glucose marker that provides a 3 month average of blood glucose levels.
What is hypoglycemia and the range? Low blood sugar. 70 mg/dL or LOWER
What are the DRUGS for the drug classification SULFONYLUREAS? Chlorpropamide, Glyburide, and Glipizide
What generation & drug classifcation is Chlorpropamide? It is a first generation Sulfonylurea. It's not used often d/t increase risk of CVD & death. Only used in pts who have been on it for a long time and works for them.
What generation & drug classification is Glyburide and Glipizide? These drugs are second generation Sulfonylureas, which are excreted in urine & bile. They don't interact w/ as many protein-bound drugs and have a longer action duration.
What are the actions of Sulfonylureas? They stimulate insulin from the pancreas's beta cells and improve binding to insulin receptors.
What are the indications for Sulfonylureas? This drug class are an adjunct to diet & exercise to lower blood glucose levels in Type 2 Diabetes.
What are the contraindications for Sulfonylureas? Any known allergies. In diabetes complicated by acute illness, traumatic event, ketoacidosis, liver/kidney disease. Type 1 Diabetes: These drugs will not have an effect as beta cells are already destroyed. Not used in pregnancy d/t metabolic rate chang
What are the adverse effects for Sulfonylureas? Hypoglycemia d/t imbalance levels of glucose and insulin. GI distress: N/V, epigastric discomfort, heartburn, and anorexia. Allergic skin reactions.
What are the drug-drug interactions for Sulfonylureas? Any drug that acidifies the urine because excretion of sulfonylureas may be decreased. Beta Blockers: masks the sign & symptoms of hypoglycemia Alcohol affects glucose levels.
What are "other antidiabetic agents?" Metformin, Sitagliptin, Dulagliptin & Liraglutide, Canagliflozin
What drug is an glucose elevating agent? Glucagon
What is the action for glucose elevating agents? It increases blood glucose levels by decreasing insulin release & accelerating the breakdown of glycogen in the liver to release glucose.
What is an indication for glucose elevating agents? Indicated to raise glucose blood levels when severe hypoglycemia occurs ( <70 mg/dL)
What are the adverse effects for glucagon? GI upset: N/V
What is a drug-drug interaction for glucagon? Anticoagulants: When combined, it can increase anticoagulant effects.
What is the onset, peak, and duration for Regular insulin? Onset: 30-60 min, Peak: 2-4 h, Duration: 6-12 h
What is the onset, peak, and duration for NPH insulin? Onset: 1-1.5 h, Peak: 4-12 h, Duration 24 h
What is the onset, peak, and duration for Inhaled insulin? Onset: 12-15 min, Peak: 60 min, Duration: 2.5-3 h
What is the onset, peak, and duration for Lispro insulin? Onset: Less than 15 min, Peak: 30-90 min, Duration: 2-5 h
What is the onset, peak, and duration for Aspart insulin? Onset: 10-20 min, Peak: 1-3 h, Duration: 3-5 h
What is the onset, peak, and duration for Glargine insulin? Onset: 60-70 min, Peak: NONE (basal), Duration: 24 h
What is the onset, peak, and duration for Glulisine insulin? Onset: 2-5 min, Peak: 30-90 min, Duration: 2 h
What is the onset, peak, and duration for Detemir insulin? Onset: 1-2 h, Peak: 3-6 h, Duration: 5.7-23.3 h
What is the onset, peak, and duration for Combination Insulins (Humalog 50/50, Humalog 75/25, Novolog , Humulin, & Novolin 70/30) Onset: 30-60 min then 1-2 h, Peak: 2-4 h then 6-12 h, Duration: 6-8 h then 18-24 h.
What are the signs & symptoms of Hyperglycemia? Fatigue, lethargy, irritation, glycosuria, polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, and itchy skin
What are the signs of impending dangerous complications of hyperglycemia? Fruity breath (the result of ketone build up in the system and are excreted through the lungs). Dehydration, slow & deep respirations (Kussmaul's respiration) as the body is trying to rid high acid levels, and loss of orientation & coma.
What disorders are associated w/ Diabetes? Atherosclerosis, Retinopathy, Neuropathies, and Nephropathy
Define Atherosclerosis Heart attacks and strokes related to the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the vessel lining
Define Retinopathy With resultant loss of vision as tiny vessels in the eye are narrowed and closed
Define Neuropathies With motor and sensory changes in the feet and legs and progressive changes in other nerves as the oxygen is cut off
Define Nephropathy With renal dysfunction related to changes in the basement membrane of the glomerulus
Created by: jmajalca
Popular Pharmacology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards