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Chapter 1 Linear

Geography Chapter 1 terms

Geographic Information System (GIS)- opens up additional avenues of inquiry when searching for answers to geographic questions
Geographic or Spatial Inquiry when geographers try to look for connections between things such as patterns, movement and migration, trends and so forth
The Six Step Geographic Inquiry Process - Ask a geographic question - Acquire geographic resources - Explore geographic data - Analyze geographic information
Scale the ratio between the distance between two locations on a map and the corresponding distance on Earth’s surface
Location a position on the surface of the earth
Toponymy the study of place names and their respective history meanings
Geocoding returning the latitude and longitude for various locations and addresses around the world
Absolute Locations contrasting nominal locations that use some type of reference system to define positions on the earth’s surface
Direction - the position of something relative to something else, usually along a line
Graticule the direction that the grid lines of latitude and longitude point to
Distance the degree or amount of separation between locations and can be measured in nominal or absolute terms with various units
Space the general geographic area of interest
Topo-Logical Space the nature of relationships and the connectivity of locations within a given space
Navigation how we move through the environment
The types of geographic knowledge - Landmark Knowledge -Rout knowledge - Survey knowledge
Map a graphic representation of the real world
Cartography the art and science of making maps (Cartographer makes maps)
Reference Map delivers location information to the map user (no single aspect of a reference map takes precedence over any other aspect)
Thematic Maps maps concerned with a particular theme or topic of interest
Different types of thematic maps include -Choropleth - Proportional Symbol -Isopleth - Dot density - Dasymetric
Overlay putting something on to of another
Topographic Maps maps showing a variety of information including roads, land-use classification, elevation, rivers and other water bodies, political boundaries, and the identification of houses another types of buildings
Geographic data represents... spatial locations and non-spatial attributes measured at certain times
Geographic space is... continuous
Geographic space is... nearly spherical
Geographic data tends to be... spatially dependent
Spatial attributes tell us where things are, or where things were at the time the data was collected
Types of geographic data - Remotely sensed data - Directly collected data
Directly collected data generated at the source of the phenomena being measured
Remotely sensed data- measured from remote distances without any direct contact with the phenomena or need to visit the locations of interest.
Graticule the grid pattern that measures the earth
Equator the largest circle of latitude on Earth that divides the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Essential Parallel Lines Equator, 0 degrees Trophic of Cancer, 23.5 degrees north Trophic of Capricorn, 23.5 degrees south Arctic Circle, 66.5 degrees north North Pole, 90 degrees north (infinitely small circle) Antarctic Circle, 66.5 degrees south (infinitely small circle)
Prime Meridian sits at 0 degrees longitude and divides the earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres
International Date Line the meridian at 180 degrees
Zones of latitude - Low latitude - Midlatitude - High latitude - Equatorial latitude - Tropical latitude - Subtropical latitude - Polar latitude
Plane of the Equator an imaginary horizontal line that cuts the earth into two halves. This brings up the topic of great and small circles
Great Circle any circle that divides the earth into a circumference of two halves
Circle of Illumination all lines of longitude, the line that divides the earth into day and night
Ecliptic Plane divides the earth into equal halves along the equator
Small circles circles that cut the earth, but not into equal halves
Time Zones stablished roughly every 15 degrees longitude so that local times correspond to similar hours of day and night
Coordinate Systems frameworks that are used to define unique positions
Spheroid a spherical shape (the shape of Earth)
Map projections methods and procedures that are used to transform the spherical three-dimensional earth into two-dimensional planar surfaces.
Spatial space
Temporal time
Geospatial techniques tools used by geographers to illustrate, manage, and manipulate spatial data
Global positioning system (GPS) can receive signals from orbiting satellites and calculate an exact location in latitude and longitude, which helps determine where one is located on the earth or for verifying a point on a map.
The basic map elements - Title - Legend/Key - North Arrow/Compass Rose - Scale
Less Developed Country a country that exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development and ranked among the lowest on the Human Development Index
Sex Ratio the number of males compared to females
Demographic Transition Model (DTM) outlines five stages of demographic transition, from traditional rural societies to modern urban societies.
Carrying Capacity the max number of organisms that an environment can sustain
Demographic Transition the changing of populations, like the populating of the world
Population Geography which is the examination of the spatial distribution of human populations
Demography study of how human populations change over time and space.
External forces hazards that influence weather, climate, and landslides. Heating from the Sun causes differential heating on the surface, ultimately creating our weather and all the hazards associated with it.
Internal Forces hazards that are generated by the internal heat of the earth and creates geologic hazards like earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis
Indirect Effect - things like contaminated water, disease, and financial losses. In other words, indirect effects are things that happen AFTER the disaster has occurred.
Direct Effect destroyed infrastructure and buildings, injuries, separated families, and even death
Mitigation efforts that will be required, such as proper building and zoning codes, first responder preparedness, and public education
Catastrophe a massive disaster that significantly impacted the human environment and requiring a significant expenditure of time, money, and resources for response and recovery
Disaster the effect of a hazard on society, usually as an event that occurs over a limited time in a defined geographic area
Hazard any natural process, or even that poses a direct threat to the human environment
Risk= Probability of disaster * Consequence of disaster
Ring of Fire along the Pacific Ocean’s outer edge where 90% of earthquakes and volcanoes happen
Remote Sensing ethnology acquires data about the earth’s surface through aerial photographs taken from airplanes or images created from satellites orbiting the earth.
Science a system that explores the world's structure and function
Belief system an influence on humanity based on culture, religion, morality, and aesthetics
Natural philosophy investigation of existence, knowledge, & phenomena using unsophisticated method's-> only using logic
Inductive Logic conclusions made from experiments
Deductive logic making assumptions and then making logical conclusions
Objective observation observing something without personal bias
Quantitative measurement a measurement expressed by number
Falsifiability the possibility hat something can be prove false by experiment
Pseudoscience the possibility that something can be proven false by experiment
Hypothesis a proposed explanation for an occurance
Theory a broad conception that refers to a set of explanations, rules, and laws
Scientific Method a method in which a structure or function is observed through steps and experiments
Experiment a test or investigation in support or in opposition
Natural Experiment conducted by watching actual variations of the phenomena
Manipulative Experiment the alternation of factors that are hypothesized to influence the phenomena
Null hypothesis a testable investigation that denies something by the central hypothesis being studied
Accuracy the degree to which a measurement or observation reflects the true value of the subject
Precision the degree of repeatability of a measurement or observation
Significant Figure the accuracy and precision and can be defined as the number of digits used to report data
Science Denial when people argue that an established scientific theories are wrong
Critical Analysis the process of sorting information and making scientific inquiries' about data
Geography the spatial study of the earth's physical and cultural environments
Spatial Analysis the study and analysis between the interactions and distribution patterns of the physical and human environments using spatial technology
Earth Science the study of landforms, climates, and the distribution of plants and animals
Regional Studies the focus of a particular region to understand the dynamics of interactions between humans and the environment
Human-Landscape Interaction examination of the impact of humans on their landscape and find out how different cultures have used and changed the environment
Physical geography the spatial study of natural phenomena that makes up the environment
Physical landscape the natural errain
Human geography the study of human activity and its relationship to earth's surface
Cultural landscape the parts of earth's surface that have been altered by humans
World regional geography the study of world regions and how they compare to the rest of the world
Realms large areas of the planet with multiple regions that share the same general geographic location
Mental maps maps of our environment that are stored in our brains that illustrate the environment and how we connect to it
Created by: breaux30480
Popular Geography sets




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