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Psych Exam 1, Part 2

Module 2: Research Methods and Statistical Thinking

Descriptice Information is collected without changing the environment in any way
Correlational Statistical measurement of the relationship between two different variables
Experimental Applying experimental methods to a psych study
Case Study An in-depth study of one person
Naturalistic Observation Observing subjects in their natural habitat
Survey Data collection tool to gather information about a subject or subjects
Archival Collecting data from resources that already exist
Longitudal Looking at variables for an extended amount of time
Cross-Section Looking at a lot of data/variables from one population at one time
The Belmont Report Federal regulations for the protection of human research participants
Respect for Persons Recognition of someone as an autonomous and free person
p-value The probability that the results happened by random chance
Independent Variable The variable that is changed (manipulated)
Dependent variable The variable that tells the results (responding)
Cause and Effect When one thing is a reason for another
Cofounding Variable A variable that explains two random things correlated. Example: The sun is the cofounding variable between the correlation that melting ice cream leads to sunburns
Directionality A problem with two variables, when cause and effect are not known
Random Assignment When a person is assigned to a study group in no certain pattern or with no reasoning
Generalizability How useful the results from a sample are for the general population
Simple Random Sample When participants are chosen in groups using a fair choice such as a coin toss
Beneficence Protecting the welfare and rights of participants
Justice The fair resolution when it comes to conflicts
Quantitative Numerical or measurable data
Categorical Characteristic used to classify units
Reliability How repeatable the test is - if you get the same results each time
Validity How accurate and true the test is
Population Individuals in a geographical area
Sample A smaller group taken from a population
Mean The average value
Standard Deviation The measure of variability in a set of data
Correlation Coefficient A number used to estimate the level of relationship between two variables, -1 is negative correlation, 0 is no correlation, 1 is positive correlation
Convenience Sample Taking a sample from who is available, not very reliable and can have bias
Representative Sample Parallels the population as a whole, but is a smaller sample
Spurious/Illusory Correlation Belief of a cause and effect that isn't actually true
Control Group A group that doesn't receive the experimental treatment (hasn't been impacted by an independent variable in order to compare to the dependent variable)
Experimental Group A group that receives the experimental treatment (the independent variable or the impact of it in order to measure the significance of it)
Random Selection People chosen in a study by chance
Experimenter Bias Errors in the research process or wrong interpretations of the results because of a researcher's beliefs or behaviors
Placebo Effect When behavior is changed because of a belief
Experimental Blinding When participants or researchers don't know who is the control group and who is the experimental group in order to prevent placebo and bias
Created by: scheeri
Popular Psychology sets




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