click below

click below

Normal Size Small Size show me how

# Psych Exam 1, Part 2

### Module 2: Research Methods and Statistical Thinking

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Descriptice | Information is collected without changing the environment in any way |

Correlational | Statistical measurement of the relationship between two different variables |

Experimental | Applying experimental methods to a psych study |

Case Study | An in-depth study of one person |

Naturalistic Observation | Observing subjects in their natural habitat |

Survey | Data collection tool to gather information about a subject or subjects |

Archival | Collecting data from resources that already exist |

Longitudal | Looking at variables for an extended amount of time |

Cross-Section | Looking at a lot of data/variables from one population at one time |

The Belmont Report | Federal regulations for the protection of human research participants |

Respect for Persons | Recognition of someone as an autonomous and free person |

p-value | The probability that the results happened by random chance |

Independent Variable | The variable that is changed (manipulated) |

Dependent variable | The variable that tells the results (responding) |

Cause and Effect | When one thing is a reason for another |

Cofounding Variable | A variable that explains two random things correlated. Example: The sun is the cofounding variable between the correlation that melting ice cream leads to sunburns |

Directionality | A problem with two variables, when cause and effect are not known |

Random Assignment | When a person is assigned to a study group in no certain pattern or with no reasoning |

Generalizability | How useful the results from a sample are for the general population |

Simple Random Sample | When participants are chosen in groups using a fair choice such as a coin toss |

Beneficence | Protecting the welfare and rights of participants |

Justice | The fair resolution when it comes to conflicts |

Quantitative | Numerical or measurable data |

Categorical | Characteristic used to classify units |

Reliability | How repeatable the test is - if you get the same results each time |

Validity | How accurate and true the test is |

Population | Individuals in a geographical area |

Sample | A smaller group taken from a population |

Mean | The average value |

Standard Deviation | The measure of variability in a set of data |

Correlation Coefficient | A number used to estimate the level of relationship between two variables, -1 is negative correlation, 0 is no correlation, 1 is positive correlation |

Convenience Sample | Taking a sample from who is available, not very reliable and can have bias |

Representative Sample | Parallels the population as a whole, but is a smaller sample |

Spurious/Illusory Correlation | Belief of a cause and effect that isn't actually true |

Control Group | A group that doesn't receive the experimental treatment (hasn't been impacted by an independent variable in order to compare to the dependent variable) |

Experimental Group | A group that receives the experimental treatment (the independent variable or the impact of it in order to measure the significance of it) |

Random Selection | People chosen in a study by chance |

Experimenter Bias | Errors in the research process or wrong interpretations of the results because of a researcher's beliefs or behaviors |

Placebo Effect | When behavior is changed because of a belief |

Experimental Blinding | When participants or researchers don't know who is the control group and who is the experimental group in order to prevent placebo and bias |