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Cog Psyc exam1

Cognitive Psychology with Dr. May

Science is not 1) to provide causal link
Cognitive Science doesn't rely on -intuition (gut feelings can be wrong) -Logic (human's don't behave logically) -authority (professionals can be wrong) -case study (always exception to rule) -Introspection (look at stages for thought as a model)
Description complete yet objective
Explaination theory that accounts for many descriptions
Good Theory accounts for all data. must be falsifiable
Prediction anticipe outcomes that wll have implications for our lives.
Naturalistic Observation observation and recording of behavior in naturalistic setting. (can't prove causality)
Correlation Study investication that explores relationship bc existing variables. *looks at unmanipulatable variables * cannot prove causality
Two important factors of correlation study 1. size of correlation 2. valence or sign of correlation
What is the strongest and weakes correlation values? +1 and -1 are the strongest 0 is the weakest
Experimental Designs Study in which investigator manipulates one or more independent variable and examines effects on one or more dependent variable *can be causal *exteral validity sacrificed.
Criteria for variables must be operationally defined or can be objectively measurd by all scientist
Experimenter Bias experimenter comes in with preconcieved ideas
Demand Characteristics participants believe they know hyothesis or know they're being watched
Cooperative/Compliant participant wants to prove you right
Non-cooperative participant doesn't want you to be right
Devensive evaluation apprehensive
Experimenter bias and demand characteristics are minimized by ______________ double blind study
Causality behavior/events have a cause that can be identified
Reality of nature the cause of a behavior or event is not supernatural
Consistency/Regularity iff certain steps are accomplished and something good happens, if these steps are repeated the same outcome will happen
Steps of Scientific Method 1. Identify problem/ generate hypothesis 2. design an Experiment 3. Conduct experiment 4. Analyze the data 5. Report the data
Disadvantages to Human patients with brain damage -damage not "neat" or specific -few patients w/ exact same damage -must assume patient was normal before injury -must assume patient is not compensating -structure damage not directly related to behavior that is impaired
Phineas Gage railroad worker w/ frontal lobe damage. Radical behavior change after accident
Henry Gustav Molaison "HM" Hippocampus completely removed to help alleviate seziures. retrograde amesia. Learned from him that muscle memory and actual memory stored differently.
Clive Wearing retrograde amesia
EEG/ERP nonenvasive. brain responce speed and location
PET scan capitalizes on blood flow. measures glucose levels percise but slow
fMRI magnetic fields to produce an image of brain *fast and percise *very expensive, clausterphobic, loud
Physical energy psychological experiences
Wavelength/frequency Hue/Color
Amplitude Brightness/intensity
Rods 125 mill/eye scotopic vision light/dark rhodopsin periphery
Cones 6-7 mill/eye photopic vision color/fine detail iodopsin fovea
Sensory receptors convert energy from the world into ____________ neural impulses
Trichromatic Theory Any color can be produced by mixing pure versions of blue, green and red light in different ratios.
Opponenet-process theory stare at dot. counter colors
Frequency pitch
amplitude loundess
what are the sensory receptors for audition? hair cells
Hair theory hair cells at particular place on basilar membrane respond most to a particular frequency of sound.
Volley theory or frequency matching theory firing rate of neuron matches a sound wave's frequency
How can hearing determine location? timing of hair cell responses
How can hearing differentiate volume # of hair ells respond
Taste and smell are ____________ chemical senses
Bottom-up Processing Basic featues of stimulus are analyzed and recombined to create perceptual experience.
Top-Down processing Some aspects are guided by knowledge, expectations are other psychologicl factors.
Empiricists knowledge from experiences
Nativist knowledge innate brain characteristics
Knowledge storage and organization of information in memory
How does the definition of knowledge relate to empiricist and ntivist views? Storage-empiricist Organization-nativist
Internal representation a transformation of evironmental cues into meaningful cognitive symbols of the perceived stimuli
model organizational framework used to describe processes.
formalism means to represent the rules used in the establishment of a model.
Neuroscience underlying brain functons
Computer science computers that work like the human brain
Evolutionary Psychology cognitios evolved as result of adaptations
Single-Cell studies invasive. use probe to measure electronic impulses in the brain.
Psychophysics study of relationships bt stimuli and the sensations and perceptions envoked by stimuli. (threshold studies)
Reaction-time studies used to study cognitive processes
Priming Studies stimulus is presented and then after a delay, a second stimulus is presented and participant is asked questions about stimuli.
Eye-Tracking Studies measure eye movement to find information on attention and understand disabilitie like dyslexia
Lateralization Studies studies on the two hemispheres of the brain
Case Studies scientist measure impairment caused by brain damage
Imaging studies studies involving pictures of the brain as its working
mind-body issue debate on the connection between the mind and body
Four main parts of neuron 1. dendrites 2. cell body 3. axon 4. presynaptic termnals
gyri ridges bt folds in the brain
sulci goves in the brain
cerebral cortex site of thinking and cognition. most recent to evolve.
Phrenology brain like a muscle and can be exercised. and like a muscle areas that are well developed will bulge out.
Lobotomy destroying portions of frontal lobe has calming effect.
aggregate field theory brain opperates as holistic organ
Split-brain research observations of patients with a severed corpus callosum
cerebral commissurotomies severing of corpus callosum
computational brain based on idea that mind is what brain does-processes information
Sensation initial detection of energy from physical world
Perception interpretation of sensory information
Created by: 503102905