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Psych 350: Exam 1

Genetics & Heredity

Chromosomes Packages of DNA
Sex cells Gametes
Mitosis Cell division
Meiosis Sex cell division
Mutations Changes in DNA caused by random or environmental factors
Random assortment -the shuffling of the 23 pairs of chromosomes -chance determines which member of the pair goes into the new sperm and egg
Chromosomal crossover -the exchange of chromosome segments between non-sister chromatids in meiosis -leads to genetic diversity
Genotype Genetic makeup of an organism
Phenotype Physical characteristics of an organism
Allele Different forms of a gene i.e blood type
Minnesota twin study -cross-sectional study of identical twins separated early in life -strong heritability: some personality, life expectancy, certain attitudes -weak heritability: some personality, spouse similarity
Dominant inheritance Everyone with the abnormal gene has the disease i.e huntington's disease
Recessive inheritance if both parents are carriers, there's a 1/4 chance of receiving the recessive allele from each parent and inheriting the disease i.e sick-cell anemia
Sex-linked traits -traits that are inherited with sex chromosomes -most are carried on X chromosome -males more susceptible to genetic defects
Codominance Both alleles are expressed equally (or blended) i.e sheep dogs
Epigenetics Environmental influences that determine whether or not genes are expressed, or the degree to which they are expressed, without altering the basic DNA sequences that constitute the genes themselves
Regulator genes Control the continuous switching on and off of genes that underlie development across the lifespan
Epigenome -the instructions that determine what and how genes are expressed in cells -can be changed, inherited, and passed down
Example of the effect of epigenomes Long-term effects of 1800's feast/famine
Darwin vs. Lamarck Natural selection (survival of the fittest) vs. traits acquired during life passed on to offspring
Norm of reaction All the phenotypes that can theoretically result from a given genotype in relation to all the environments in which it can survive and develop
Examples of norm of reaction -Himalayan rabbit's fur changes color based on its environment -warrior/MAOA gene
Adoption studies Examine whether adopted children are more like their biological or adopted relatives
Adoptive-twin studies Compare the similarity between identical twins who grew up together and those reared apart
Limitations and caveats about heritability estimates -scores do not apply to make-up of individuals -they only apply to particular group living at particular time -can differ depending on environment -high heritability ≠ immutability
Created by: lnamugenyi
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