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Psych 350: Exam 2

Social Cognition & Symbols

Sociocultural theories Focused on how the social world molds development. Combination of interaction with people and things (beliefs, values, etc)
Understanding what kinds of objects have intentions In the blob experiment, the child will watch the blob with the face rather than the one with the flashing light.
False Belief Task Sally and Anne play tricks on one another. Anne steals Sallys Ball and hides it in her box. Where does Sallys ball go? Child does not understand Sallys intention until about 4 or 5
Main conclusion Before age 1, infants have already learned a great deal about how humans behave and how their behavior is related to their intentions or goals.
Theory of mind People's ideas about their own and others' mental states.
Relation between autism and theory of mind Believed to be in a specific region of the brain, as where children with autism show fundamental differences here (core is egocentrism)
Egocentrism In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
Dual representation Viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol
Scale errors Young children's inappropriate use of an object due to their failure to consider information about the object's size
Problem with dual representation Emphasizing a symbol's status as an object or entity can hinder children's understanding and use of that symbol, while de-emphasizing its status as an object can promote children's symbolic use
Pretend Play Make believe activities and creation of new symbolic relations (18 m/0)
Imaginary Friends Popular in first-borns and only children. Coorelated with lack of TV or verbal skills as a substitution for company.
Object Substitution Object is used as something other than its own (Ex: Banana Phone)
Sociodramatic play Children enact mini dramas with other people
Vygotskys theory Children develop in stages where environment is crucial for correct development. Emphasizes the zone of proximal development
Proximal development What children can do with help - a simulation of how they or others feel in various situations
Created by: lnamugenyi
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