Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

psy101 part 2

Exam I

Thorndike's Puzzle Box Trial & Error Learning
Skinner Box Pigeons feed and box recorded frequencies of responses. Rat and petal to get pellet of food. Lever=stimulus Pressing=response Food=consequence
Positive Reinforcement A desired reinforcer is presented after a response increasing the likelihood of reoccurrence of a behavior. Ex = food, attention. sometimes scolding = bad attention.
Negative Reinforcement Unpleasant circumstance or event is removed following a desired behavior. Shock stops when bar is pressed.
Primary Reinforcers Events or objects inherently satisfying a physical need (food, water, relief from pain)
Secondary reinforcers Learned reinforces that do not satisfy a physical need (money, grades, attention)
Continuous reinforcement Rewarded for each desired response.
Partial reinforcement Intermittent reinforcement.
Fixed interval (time) Reward after a fixed amount of time.
Variable interval Rewarded on an average over time.
Fixed ratio (# of times) reward after a fixed number of responses.
Variable ratio Rewarded on a varied rate of response.
Classical conditioning Learned association between US and CS. Organism is passive. Responses elicited.
Operant conditioning Associate response and reinforcement. Organism is active. Responses emitted.
Bandura Much learning is done in a social context. Bobo Doll Study.
Sensation The awareness of properties of an object or an event when a sensory receptor is stimulated. Physical energy strikes a sense organ. Receptors send signal to the brain.
Light a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave.
Amplitude perception of brightness
Wavelength Wavelength the distance from the peak of one wave to the peak of the next. perception of color. Longer:RED Shorter:VIOLET
Cornea where light enters the eye
Lens focuses the light rays on the retina
Iris Colored ring of muscle surrounding the pupil
Pupil Regulates amount of light
Retina Neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye which absorbs light, processes images, and sends information to the brain.
Optic disk or nerve Where the optic nerve leaves the eye/ blind spot
Fovea The small, central region of the retina with the highest density of cones and the highest resolution
Rods (100-120 million) Very sensitive to light. Only register shades of gray. black and white/low light vision.
Cones (5-6 million) Sensitive to particular wavelengths. Allow color vision &daylight vision.
Nearsightedness A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects.
Farsightedness A condition in which far away objects are seen more clearly than near objects.
Sleep Stages Stage 1-Hypnogogic. Stage 2-Sleep spindles. Stages 3&4-Delta waves. REM (rapid eye movement) sleep.
Sleep Stage 1 Lasts about 5 minutes. Breathing becomes deeper and more regular Brain waves lessen. You can be easily awakened in this stage. If awaken you do not feel like you even fell asleep. Body jerks.
Sleep Stage 2 Lasts about 20 minutes. EEG record sleep spindles. Brief bursts of brain activity. Person more relaxed and less responsive to environment. Feel like you are asleep.
Sleep Stage 3 Brain produces delta waves. Slow, high amplitude brain waves. Heart rate and body temp decrease. Person is hard to wake.
Sleep Stage 4 Person in deep sleep. Hard to awaken. Waking = disorientation. Heart rate, body temp, and blood pressure are at their lowest.
Sleep Stage REM After an hour the cycle reverses Instead of stage 1 the person goes into Rapid Eye Movement More brain activity than in waking hours Dreams are vivid &easy to remember Breathing &heart rate are irregular Genitals show arousal Muscle relaxed &unrespo
Chemicals in Sleep Acetylcholine-Activated so we can sleep. Sleeping pills. neurotransmitter = serotonin &norepinephrine. Melatonin-Helps us sleep.
Annual Cycle On an annual cycle geese migrate, grizzly bears hibernate, and humans experience seasonal variations in appetite, sleep and mood. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder caused by dark winter months.
Sleep Theories Sleep Protects: Sleeping in the night when predators loom kept our ancestors out of harm. Sleep Recuperates: Heals brain/body tissue. Helps Remembering: Restores & rebuilds memories. Sleep &Growth: During sleep pituitary gland releases growth hormones.
Created by: bja34
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards